UNEP and the Green Economy – Four Decades in Development
1995 Global Programme of Action (GPA) launched as a non-binding agreement to protect the marine environment from land-based sources of pollution.
- Adopted by 108 Governments and the EU.
- Only global initiative to address terrestrial, freshwater, coastal and marine ecosystems.
1995 Basel Ban Amendment barring export of hazardous wastes adopted.
- Ratified by 70 countries and the EU.
- Established a regime for minimization of health and environmental impacts.
- Created new, green economic opportunities.
1996 UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) entered into force.
- 193 signatories.
- 42 African National Action Programmes.
- 5 Sub-regional Action Programmes.
- Two thirds of African countries implementing National Forest Programmes (NFPs).
1998 Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade adopted.
- 39 banned or restricted chemicals.
- 146 parties to the convention.
- 265 national implementation authorities established in 170 countries.
1999 UN Global Compact launched.
- Over 8500 signatories from 135 countries working on sustainable and socially responsible policies.
2000 The Malmö Declaration adopted.
- Call to action on international environmental governance.
- Crucial input to UN Millennium General Assembly and Rio+10 summit.
2000 Millennium Declaration adopted: “ensuring environmental sustainability” as one of eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
- MDG 7 sets environmental targets.
- Close to 87 % increase in access to drinking water. MDG’s 89 % target likely to be surpassed.
- 94 million hectares increase in size of protected areas, covering 13 % of the world’s forests.
2001 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) adopted.
- 176 parties.
- 18 chemicals listed targeted for elimination.
- 15 centres for capacity building and technology transfer.
2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development
- Re-affirmed UNEP’s central role in sustainable development.
- Linked poverty alleviation and environmental protection.
- 2 new targets: To halve by 2015 people without access to basic sanitation; and to eliminate by 2012 destructive fishing practices.