UNEP's post-conflict environment assessment of Afghanistan (February 2003) highlights degradation caused by two decades of warfare that presents a major obstacle to the country's reconstruction efforts. UNEP contributed to the UN 2003 Transitional Assistance Programme for Afghanistan, which includes environmental priority areas and identifies funding needs.
The current conflict has added to chronic environmental stresses that have accumulated in Iraq since the 1980s. A Desk Study on Environmental Conditions in Iraq (April 2003) provides a preliminary assessment of the main environmental threats facing the country and recommends actions for immediate relief and long-term recovery. Priority issues include hazardous waste and emissions, water-resource management, ecosystemsóespecially the Mesopotamian Marshlandsóand depleted uranium.
Occupied Palestinian Territories
A Post-Conflict Desk Assessment in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (January 2002) highlights alarming, conflict-related environmental problems that are adding to existing pressures on the environment, which include population pressures and scarcity of land, weak environmental infrastructure, inadequate resources for environmental management, and global environmental trends such as desertification and climate change.
UNEP has been involved in assessing the environmental impact of the Balkans conflict since 1999. Building on foundations laid by the Balkans Task Force in the Former Republic of Yugoslavia, UNEP has since gone on to assess the environmental impact of the conflict in Albania and FYR Macedonia, and the extent of contamination caused by the use of depleted uranium ammunition in Kosovo, Serbia and Montenegro.