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World Heritage Push for Garden of Eden

Kyoto/Nairobi, 5 September 2008 - An initiative was unveiled today to list the Fertile Crescent, thought by some to be the location of the Biblical ‘Garden of Eden’, as a World Heritage Site.

Supported by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), in cooperation with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), with funding from the Government of Italy, the proposed listing aims to further the conservation of a wetland of global, cultural, natural and environmental significance.

The Marshlands of the Tigris and Euphrates delta, spawning grounds for Gulf fisheries and home to wide variety of bird species, were almost totally drained and destroyed by the former regime of Iraqi president Saddam Hussein during the 1990s and early 21st century.

Dams upstream on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which feed the fabled area, had also aggravated the decline. By 2002 the 9,000 square km of permanent wetlands had dwindled to just 760 square km.

UNEP estimated then that these wetlands would be completely lost within three to five years unless urgent action was taken.

The World Heritage management support plan, announced at the end of a meeting in Kyoto, follows a four-year, $14 million UNEP project to restore the ecological viability of the site and sustainable livelihoods to the Marsh Arabs.

Heirs to the ancient Babylonian and the Sumerian civilizations, the Marsh Arabs and their wetland home had been targeted by the former Iraqi government, forcing an estimated 200,000 to 300,000 people into exile or camps in and outside Iraq.

With the collapse of the Saddam Hussein government in mid-2003, local residents began breaking the drainage embankments and opening the floodgates to bring water back into the Marshlands.

The UNEP Marshland management project, which commenced in 2004 with funding from the UN Iraq Trust Fund, the Government of Japan and the Government of Italy, has been working with the Iraqi environment ministry and local communities to accelerate improvements.

These include environmentally-friendly methods of providing safe drinking water for up to 22,000 people, the planting of reed banks and beds as natural pollution and sewage filters and the introduction of renewable energies such as solar.

A Marshland Information Network has been established. Training in satellite and field monitoring and wetland restoration and management has also been part of the project which today completed its final evaluation phase at the Kyoto meeting.

Narmin Othman, the Iraqi Environment Minister who is in Japan for the event, said: "I am very happy that we are now going to work towards making the Marshlands a National Park and a globally important World Heritage Site.”

“Because of what Saddam Hussein did, the Marshlands were in danger of completely disappearing, as was the centuries-old culture of the Marsh Arabs. It had become an ecological but also a human tragedy,” she said.

Achim Steiner, UN Under-Secretary-General and UNEP Executive Director, said: “I would like to thank the Governments of Japan and Italy for their support and congratulate the Iraqi people on these extraordinary achievements.”

Mr Steiner said he looked forward to working with the Iraqi government and cooperating with UNESCO on developing a comprehensive management plan en route to securing a World Heritage Site listing and thanked the government of Italy for its invaluable support.





Further Resources

Full Press Release

UNEP Iraqi Marshlands Project

Electric Fishing

UNEP's Post Conflict and Disaster Management Branch - Iraq Reports

MODIS Rapid Response System:
Downloadable Satellite Images

Archive of Satellite Images

Vital Water Graphics: From Wetlands to Dry Lands
The Destruction of the Mesopotamian Marshlands

Short Film on Iraqi Marshlands

GEO Yearbook 2004/5: The Environmental Toll of Conflict

GEO-3 Our Changing Environment: Mesopotamian Marshlands

UNEP Project to Help Manage and Restore the Iraqi Marshlands

Marshlands Project:
UNEP's Iraqi Marshlands Project receives 2007 UN 21 Award Commendation (June 2008)

Iraq Marshlands Observation System (IMOS)

UNEP Study Sounds Alarm about the Disappearance of the Mesopotamian Marshlands
(including pre and post drainage images of Mesopotamian Marshlands)

"Garden of Eden" in Southern Iraq Likely to Disappear Completely in Five Years
Unless Urgent Action Taken (including pre and post drainage images of Mesopotamian Marshlands)

The Mesopotamian Marshlands: Demise of and Ecosystem

Photo Gallery: Marshlands and Life in the Marshlands

Photo Gallery: Survey Activities in the Marshlands

Photo Gallery: Training and Workshops

Photo Gallery: Drinking Water Provision

Photo Gallery: Awareness-raising Activities for Women

UNEP International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC)

UNEP's Post Conflict and Disaster Management Branch


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