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应对珍稀白鹤数量下降

独树一帜的鸟类迁移项目推动了亚洲大部地区濒危物种和水禽赖以生存的湿地保护工作

2010年2月24日 巴厘-白鹤,学名Grus leucogeranus,属于严重濒危物种。由于中国、伊朗、哈萨克斯坦和俄罗斯四国(处于白鹤的迁徙路线)的通力合作,白鹤迎来了更加光明的前景。

在全球环境基金(GEF)的支持下,该保护项目由国际鹤类基金会通过联合国环境规划署(UNEP)实施,并首次使用"迁徙路线"办法来稳定和维持仅存的3000-3500只白鹤和其他数以百万计的候鸟的数量。"迁徙路线"是指鸟类迁徙时的固定线路,往往跨越不同的大陆和海洋。

该伙伴关系大大推动了约700万公顷湿地的养护和恢复,保护了在环境和经济上都极为重要的生态系统。

白鹤是世界上最为濒危的鸟类之一。每年白鹤从西伯利亚北部的繁殖地启程,途经两条迁徙路线最终到达中国南部和伊朗的越冬地,整个迁移路程长达 5000 公里。

在这一艰巨的征途中,白鹤需要飞越地球上最高的山峰和环境最恶劣的沙漠。然而近年来,一些候鸟迁徙途中停息的重要湿地正日渐枯竭。此外,偷猎等不法行为也威胁到了白鹤和其他移徙性水禽的生存。

这一独特的 10 年期项目保护着白鹤在欧亚大陆东西两侧的两条主要迁徙路线。今日(星期三)在印度尼西亚巴厘举行的环境署理事会/全球部长级环境论坛第十一届特别会上发布的出版物《白鹤的安全迁徙路线》一书中讲述了这个故事。

联合国副秘书长兼联合国环境规划署执行主任阿奇姆.施泰纳指出:"白鹤湿地项目显示了生物多样性的保护和人类关注的问题紧密相连:这正是联合国的国际生物多样性年所强调的重点"。

"白鹤需要在湿地休息和觅食。而社区和国家同样也需要湿地:因为湿地不仅能提供饮用水、净化水源、推动渔业生产,还能在防洪和应对气候变化中发挥重要作用。一些研究估计,湿地可能储存着全球10%-20%的陆源碳。"他补充道。

全球环境基金首席执行官莫尼克.巴布特表示:"在过去 100 年中,全世界约60% 的湿地-和欧洲多达90%的湿地-已被破坏,主要原因是农用灌溉,其他原因包括污染、水坝修筑、运河开挖、地下水抽取、城市发展和泥炭开采等。"

"因此,这个项目对于人类和野生动物双方来说都是一种物有所值的投资-不仅保护了这种标志性鸟类的未来,而且还确保了数十万甚至数百万人们的未来健康和福祉。"她补充道。

项目介绍

白鹤的数量正在直线下降,因此对湿地和这种珍稀鸟类的保护工作是一场争分夺秒的竞赛。尽管人们已经付诸几十年的努力,在20世纪70年代,世界15种鹤类当中仍有7种受到灭绝的威胁。

鸭、鹅、天鹅等水禽正面临着相似的遭遇。全球范围内,已知水禽中有40%的数量正在下降,在亚洲这一数字上升至59%。

虽然不同物种数量下降的原因不尽相同,但是人口增长、捕猎和对于有限水资源不断增加的需求都造成了水禽赖以生存的湿地的丧失和退化。

"白鹤湿地项目"引起了人们对于湿地大范围丧失问题的关注。该项目的独特性在于四个国家齐心合力,通过区域合作保障了三条迁徙线路经过的16个重要湿地组成的湿地网络。

该项目选择了白鹤作为主要保护物种,以鼓舞人们采取更多行动保护其他候鸟。由全环基金资助1030万美元于10年前成立的白鹤湿地项目着重强调了跨欧亚大陆湿地保护的公众意识和与政府及地方社区的合作。到目前为止,湿地面积达到700多万公顷,相当于爱尔兰的国土面积或以色列面积的3.5倍。

该项目已在许多方面取得了成功。它不仅巩固了欧亚大陆的16个重要湿地,而且还确实改善了这一地区数百万人民的水源供应。

该项目还取得了以下成果:

  • 中国和哈萨克斯坦的水资源管理规划、湿地修复及相关水文监测研究;

  • 覆盖九个国家的120个站点的"迁徙路线"环境教育项目,通过以鹤类为主题的活动以及在一些国家的学校设置相关课程,整合了湿地和水禽保护课题;

  • 编写了"关于减少重要湿地水禽面临的禽流感风险的实用建议",惠及了人类健康和鸟类保护;

  • 提高了有关监测项目和移徙水禽分布的知识,帮助确定和应对新出现的威胁;

  • 通过提高国际知名度和改善全国性保护措施保护了重要湿地;

  • 提高了对吸引利益攸关方和地方社区参与所能获得的益处的认识,它们已经开始积极参与解决争端;

  • 提高了人们(主要是在学校和青年人)的生态意识,为保护措施提供强有力的支持。

    更具体地说,白鹤迁徙途经的四个国家的各个项目负责人都汇报了重要的合作和研究成果。

    其中包括:

    中国首创解决水域分布和保护湿地的方法。在中国东北的松嫩平原,通过社区的发展项目对当地牧民在湿地放牧给予适时的管理, 牲畜在湿地放牧的影响得到充分的缓解。

    在中国南部鄱阳湖流域的15个县市建立了一个林业保护站网络,大大加强了对水禽的保护。还在鄱阳湖流域68个亚湖进行隆冬计数,该活动已经持续6年之久。

    伊朗通过社区活动支持管理湿地的各种替代方法。几个伊朗的捕鸟协会开发了小型贷款计划,而综合虫害管理试点在Fereydoon Kenar禁猎区开展,试图减少除草剂和杀虫剂的使用,保护人类和鸟类的健康。

    哈萨克斯坦不仅建立并扩大了自然保护区,还通过媒体提高公众认识、吸引利益攸关方参与。开展了一次高效率的环境教育项目,此外,还进行了可持续生计培训,建立了水管理、生物多样性保护、残疾儿童呵护等社区组织,使当地社区从中获益。

    俄罗斯已经发展了有效的生态监测计划并尝试了一些革新性的方法,通过建立区域保护区网络去支持当地对联邦自然保护区的保护。

    这个计划极大地改善了水禽和社区居民都依赖的湿地网络。全球范围内, 34%的水禽数量处于稳定状态,17%正在增加。在亚洲, 27%的水禽数量趋稳,10%是正在增长。

    鸟类和湿地的命运取决于对水资源的保护和有效管理。虽然目前正在使用笼养再放生的方法,但鸟类的存活率仍然依赖湿地管理和安全的迁徙路线。

    这个计划已经在跨越西伯利亚、俄罗斯和中国的东部迁徙路线上取得了成功。更多的注意力应该集中在俄罗斯、哈萨克和伊朗上空的西部迁徙路线。在那里,狩猎和湿地的退化继续危及鸟类。

    已有11个国家与《移徙物种公约》签署协议,确保今后继续保护白鹤和所有移徙性水禽。

    若想了解更多,请洽:

    环境署媒体部门主任、发言人Nick Nuttall, +41 795965737 或 +254733632755 或 nick.nuttall@unep.org

    Notes to editors:

    International Crane Foundation (ICF):

    The International Crane Foundation (ICF) is a non-profit organization based in Wisconsin, United States, with programmes in over 20 countries focusing on the conservation of cranes and the wetland and grassland ecosystems on which they depend. Through the charismatic crane, ICF has improved livelihoods and protected resources important to human communities all over the world. ICF has a 36-year history of productive collaboration with the governments and communities in Eurasia and served as the international executing agency for the SCWP.

    Quote by James Harris, ICF Vice President: "The Siberian Crane is a magnificent flagship. Of strong cultural significance wherever it has occurred, this critically endangered species has inspired conservation efforts for decades. The International Crane Foundation and the network of crane conservationists along two long flyways of the crane welcomed the opportunities provided by SCWP."

    "The book being launched today proudly shares the work and achievements of this four-country effort. Through the cranes, SCWP has addressed resource issues of major significance for biodiversity conservation and human development - for example, our work on water supply for wetlands in China and Kazakhstan, or with community participation in protected area management in Iran. At the regional level, the project developed a new flyway site network for West/Central Asia under CMS, and coordinated an expanding flyway education programme across Eurasia to build support for conservation. "

    "Through SCWP, these two flyways have become safer for migrating waterbirds. Yet migratory birds require long-term, international collaboration - SCWP has laid the groundwork for that continued effort - that will happen under auspices of the CMS MoU on the Siberian Crane and other flyway conservation initiatives. Our deep thanks to UNEP, GEF, CMS, the four countries and other partners. "

    Contact: Claire Mirande, SCWP Project Director, at mirande@savingcranes.org

    Web: www.savingcranes.org

    Convention on Migratory Species (CMS):

    The Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) is an intergovernmental treaty concluded under the United Nations Environment Programme and focusing on the conservation of migratory species and their habitats. CMS's membership includes 113 Parties from Africa, Central and South America, Asia, Europe and Oceania. CMS established a Memorandum of Understanding concerning Conservation Measures for the Siberian Crane, which now has 11 signatory states covering the entire range of the species, as well as ICF and other non-governmental organizations. The CMS MoU provides the main framework for formal international cooperation for the Siberian Crane, and CMS has played an important role in the overall direction of the SCWP.

    "The countries through which the Siberian cranes travel on their annual migrations have shown true commitment to protecting the species through the UNEP/GEF project. Progress in China, Iran, Russia and Kazakhstan is particularly noteworthy. The many success stories prove how effective the international community can be at addressing conservation problems."

    "Siberian Cranes are exposed to a variety of man-made threats. During the International Year of Biodiversity, CMS continues to support this most important UNEP/GEF project to protect this majestic bird and its habitat by reconciling human needs and sustaining the crucial wetlands that provide us with health and the vital services we depend on."

    Contact: Douglas Hykle at hykle@un.org or Marco Barbieri at mbarbieri@cms.int

    Web: www.cms.int

    All-Russian Research Institute for Nature Protection (ARRINP):

    The All-Russian Research Institute for Nature Protection (ARRINP) of the Russian Federation Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology was assigned National Executing Agency at the start of the SCWP. This role was eventually assumed by an independent management team. ARRINP as a research branch provides technical advice to the Ministry on matters of nature conservation including habitats and species.

    Contact: Alexander Sorokin at agsorokin@mail.ru Web: www.rinpro.ru

    Department of Environment (DOE):

    The Department of Environment (DOE), the SCWP National Executing Agency in Iran, is a government agency focusing on the sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of Iran's environment and biodiversity. DOE manages the national protected areas system and is responsible for species conservation, including international cooperation. The Division of Wildlife and Aquatic Affaires of DOE's Department of Biodiversity and Natural Resources coordinated the SCWP in Iran.

    Sadegh Sadeghi-Zadegan, SCWP National Project Manager for Iran

    "In Iran, this project achieved pioneering efforts in demonstrating collaboration with local communities in the management of wetlands of importance for waterbirds and human welfare in a scientific manner. It can also be mentioned that another achievement was to restore the hydrology and ecological aspects and improve the management system of the selected sites using high-quality consultancies and ensuring the greatest possibility of restoring wetlands with minimal or no adverse affects to on-site resources or to off-site properties. In addition improved wetland functioning, and improved habitat for native species populations is another achievement. New alliances for conservation have been created through stakeholder participation and support for the development of local community-based organizations. The project also assisted Iran in achieving practical conservation measures under the CMS MoU on the Conservation of the Siberian Crane. We look forward to continuing our cooperative efforts through the Seventh Meeting of the CMS MoU in Tehran in March 2010.

    Contact: Mr. Mohammad-Bagher Sadoogh, SCWP National Project Director, at Tel:+98 21 88269913

    Web: www.irandoe.org

    Forestry and Hunting Committee (FHC):

    The Forestry and Hunting Committee (FHC) of the Kazakhstan Ministry of Agriculture served as the National Executing Agency for the SCWP in Kazakhstan. FHC is responsible for the management of the national protected areas system and species conservation, including international cooperation.

    Contact: Bakhytbek Duisekeyev, SCWP National Project Director, at cites@minagri.kz

    Institute for Biological Problems of the Cryolithozone (IBPC):

    The Institute for Biological Problems of the Cryolithozone (IBPC) of the Russian Academy of Sciences Siberian Branch coordinated SCWP activities in Yakutia, Russia. IBPC has been conducting research on the Siberian Crane for more than 30 years, and is a leading authority on environmental research in the tundra and boreal permafrost zones.

    Contact: Nikolai Germogenov, SCWP Yakutia Project Director, at sterkh-yrcu@mail.ru

    State Forestry Administration (SFA):

    The State Forestry Administration (SFA) was the SCWP National Executing Agency in China. SFA's Department of Wildlife Protection and Nature Reserve Management has responsibility for managing a large network of nature reserves and species conservation, including international cooperation within the developing framework of the East Asian - Australasian Flyway Partnership.

    Contact: Wang Wei, SCWP National Project Director, at wangwei@forestry.gov.cn

    Web: www.forestry.gov.cn

    East Asian-Australasian Flyway Partnership (EAAFP):

    The East Asian-Australasian Flyway Partnership (EAAFP) focuses on migratory waterbird protection along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. The EAAFP's activities include development of a Waterbird Site Network, collaborative activities to increase knowledge and raise awareness of migratory waterbirds, and building capacity for the sustainable management and conservation of migratory waterbird habitat.

    Contact: Roger Jaensch, Chief Executive, East Asian - Australasian Flyway Partnership at chief@eaaflyway.net

    Web: http://www.eaaflyway.net

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