IEA Training Manual - Module 4

Appendix A: Continuation of GEO Core Indicator Matrix

Theme Issue Potential data variables Proposed key and lead indicators
1 2 3 4
Biodiversity
(continued
from Table 1)
Wildlife trade • Trade in flora and fauna (birds, reptiles, plants, mammals, butterflies, ornamental fish) • Net trade in wildlife and captive-bred.species
Overfishing • Total inland, fresh water and marine fish 
catch, production, consumption and trade
Total and per capita
marine fish catch

• Total fish catch in inland
waters (incl. aquaculture)
Protected  
areas
•National, international and local parks and 
 protected areas: Biosphere reserves (terr.
and marine), Wetlands of international
importance, World heritage sites
Total protected areas (number, size) and % of total land
• Marine protected areas in LMEs
Freshwater Freshwater 
resources
• Annual internal renewable water resources
• Annual river flows from/to other countries, by basin
• Annual freshwater use by sector (domestic, industry, agric., following ISIC classes)
• Annual groundwater recharge
• Annual groundwater withdrawals by sector
 • Annual internal renewable  water resource per capita
 • Annual freshwater use per capita
 • Population with  water stress
Water 
quality
• River pH, concentrations of oxygen (DO,  BOD), coliforms, particulates (TSS, TDS), nitrates (NO3, NH4, NP), phosphor (PO4), metals (HMs), pesticides
• Fish biodiversity (reserves, specie no.)
• Groundwater pH, concentrations of nitrates, TDS (salinity), iron, chlorides, sulphates
• Waste Water Treatment: % served, public  expenditures
BOD level of most
important rivers
• Nitrates level of most important rivers

• Coliform count per
 100 ml)
• Pesticides concentrations
 in most important rivers
Atmosphere Climate 
change
• Anthropogenic emission of GHG (CO2, CH4, N2O, also HFCs, PFCs, SF6), total and by sector (transport, industry, agric., livestock, fossil fuels)
• Emissions of precursors (NOx, CO, NMVOC,
CH4), total and by sector
• Emissions of acidifying gases (NH3, NOx,
SO2), total and by sector
• Atmospheric concentration of GHG, CO, 
SO2, NOx, NH3, PM, Pb, VOC, O3
• Glacier retreat
• Annual change of temp., precip.
• Fossil fuel supply (% and intensity)
• Rainwater pH for selected areas
• Expenditures on air pollution abatement
and control
GHG, NOx, SO2
emissions total and
per capita
• GHG, NOx, SO2
emissions per $US

• Global mean
 temperature rise
• Global mean
 concentration of CO2, SO2 NOx, PM10
• Fossil fuel
 consumption share
Renewable energy
supply index
Stratospheric
ozone 
depletion
• Production, consumption, import and 
 export of CFCs, Halons, HCFCs, Methyls, 
 CCl4, MeBr
• Atmospheric ODS concentration over
selected cities (parts per trillion)
• Ozone levels/total ozone column over
selected cities (Dobson units)
• Ground level UV-B radiation over selected
cities
• Total ODS production
 by compound
Total CFC, HCFC and MeBr consumption
Coastal and  marine areas Coastal and 
Marine 
pollution
 • Average annual sediment load
 • Average annual untreated waste disposal by sector (dom. ind. and agric. – fertilizers, pesticides/insecticides)
• Discharge of oil into coastal waters 
(000 tonne)
• Concentrations of HMs (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, 
Fe, Mn, Ni, Co)
• Concentration of PCBs
• Industrial activities in coastal region
• Share of pollution caused by sector 
(domestic, industrial, urban, coastal,
transport, refineries)
• Coastal population (growth, urban share)
• Tourist arrival in coastal marine areas
(million/year)
• Number of hotels/resorts in coastal
areas (000)
 • Average annual sediment  load
 • Average annual untreated waste disposal by
 sector (dom./ind./agric.,
 fertilizers, pesticides/
 insecticides)
 •% of urban population
living in coastal areas

 • Area of Exclusive
 Economic Zone (EEZ)
Disasters Natural 
disasters
• Occurrences, financial damage and 
 casualties (people affected, homeless, 
injured, killed) related to floods, droughts, 
cyclones, earthquakes, landslides, volcanic
eruptions, forest fires
 • Total number of
 natural disasters p/y
 • Number of people killed by natural disasters,
per mln

• Economic loss due to natural disasters
Human- 
induced
disasters
• Occurrences, financial damage and 
 casualties (people affected, homeless,
 injured, killed) related to transport and 
industrial accidents
 • Total number of
techn. accidents p/y

 • Total number of
 people affected by
technological accidents
• Economic loss due to techn. accidents
Urban areas Urbanization • Urban population, total, growth rate
• Number of cities with over 750 000 
population
 • Average annual urban population growth rate
Urban air 
pollution
• Concentration of pollutants in cities  • Concentration of lead, PM, SO2, NOx in major cities of the world
  Waste  
management
•Waste generation and disposal methods 
 by sector: municipal, industrial, agricultural,
hazardous
 • Municipal waste
production per capita
(solids)

• Industrial waste
generated per US$
• Hazardous waste
production per US$
• Movement of hazardous wastes
•Waste management
fractions
• Exposure to HMs, toxic
chemicals
• Share of recycled waste
Socio- 
economic 
(incl. health)
Population 
and social 
 
• Population, total and growth rate 
• Total fertility rate
• Adult literacy (%) by sex
• Education enrolment, net and gross (primary, secondary, tertiary), by sex
• Education expenditures (prim., sec., tert.)
• Labour force total (% population), by sector (agric., ind., serv.) and by sex
• Telephones (main lines and cellular per
100 people)
• Daily newspapers (copies per 100 people)
• Radios (number per 100 people)
• Televisions (number per 100 people)
• Computers (number per 100 people)
• Internet connections (number per 10 000
people)
 • Average annual
population growth rate

 • Population density
 change
Economy • Real GDP, total and per capita, annual
• Power Purchasing Parity (PPP)
• Number of people in absolute poverty, 
rural and urban
• Merchandise exports (value), total and by 
sector: manufacturing, fuels/minerals/
metals, services
• Merchandise imports (value), total, food, fuels
• Trade (% of GDP)
• Terms of trade (1995=100)
• Inflation, consumer prices (annual %)
• Unemployment rate (%)
• Total external debt total and % of GNP
• Total debt service (as % of exports of
goods and services)
• Foreign direct investment, net inflows
(% of GDP)
• Official Development Assistance and Aid
(ODA)
GDP per capita
• PPP per capita
• Value added as % of
 GDP by sector:
 agriculture, industry,
 services
Consumption
and 
production
• Total commercial energy production, by 
 sector: fossil fuels, hydro, nuclear, 
 geothermal, biomass, solar, wind
• Total commercial energy use, total and 
per capita
• Energy efficiency and intensity
• Traditional fuel use (% of total energy
consumption)
• Energy imports, net (% of energy
consumption)
• Renewable energy use (%)
• Total electricity generation by sector:
thermal, hydro, nuclear, non-hydro,
renewables
•Total electricity consumption
• % population with access to electricity
• Value added by sector: agric., ind., manuf.,
services
• Distribution of GDP by demand sector:
government consumption, private
consumption, gross domestic investment,
gross domestic saving
• Defence expenditures (% of GDP)
 • Total commercial
 energy production
 • Commercial energy
 consumption per capita
 • Energy use per unit
GDP
Transport • Motor vehicles in use (per 000 people), 
by type of engine
• Total length of motor ways (000 km)
• Density of motor ways (km/10 000 km2)
• Road traffic intensity per unit of GDP
(vehicle km/US$)
• Number of departures and arrivals (airports)
• Energy consumption by road transport
(% share of total consumption)
 • Road traffic intensity per unit of GDP
Agriculture 
and 
livestock
• Agricultural production index 
• Food production index 
• Pesticide consumption (tonnes)
• Fertilizer use (000 kg)
• Livestock units (000 head)
• Use of nitrogen on
 agric. land
• Use of phosphate on  agric. land
Use of pesticides on agric. land
• Agricultural production value added
• Use of nitrogen on
 agric. land
• Use of phosphate on
 agric. land
• Use of pesticides on
agric. land
• Agricultural production
value added
• Population below poverty line, urban and 
 rural, by sex
• % pop with access to safe drinking water, 
urban and rural
• % pop with access to sanitation services, 
urban and rural
• No. of people per physician, per hospital bed
• No. of people with access to health services
• Government expenditures on health services
• Calories supply, total and from animal food
• Available calories as % of requirement
• Malnutrition in children under five years
• Average life expectancy, by sex
• Crude death rate
• Infant mortality rate
• Mortality incidence, by disease (malaria, 
respiratory infections, AIDS, etc.)
• Burden of disease (DALYs)
• % pop affected by noise
• % pop in noise-prone areas
• Level of noise in urbanized cities
 • % of total population 
access to safe drinking  water
• % of total population
 access to sanitation
 services
• No. of people per
 physician (000)
• Infant mortality rate
 (per 1000 births)
• Caloric intake per capita
• % of GDP spent for
 health services
• Mortality caused by
 respiratory infection
• Mortality caused by
 communicable diseases
• Disability-Adjusted Life
 Years (DALYs)
  Governance • Environmental institutions, policies in place
• Environmental conventions signed
• No. of conflicts, state failures
 • Number of parties to
major environmental
agreements (MEAs)
• Number of organizations
certified by ISO14001
environmental
management standard

• Number of countries with
national councils for
sustainable development
• Responses to international
environmental reporting
and data collections
Geography Support
data sets 
 • Admin. boundaries (countries, regions,
 LMEs, EEZ)
• Infrastructure (roads, rivers, lakes)
• Watershed boundaries
• Cities (location, area)
• Population density (time series)
• Land cover and vegetation (time series)
• Soil units and characteristics
• Elevation and slopes

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