IEA Training Manual - Module 5

2.1 Setting spatial boundaries

In principle, you can carry out an IEA analysis for any given issue, geographic area or level of decision making. In practice however, there usually are two choices: analysis based on jurisdictional (political) boundaries, or on non-political boundaries (e.g., ecoregion, watershed). Using either approach has advantages and disadvantages; only rarely do the two spatial boundaries coincide as they do, for example, in small island states. The geographic area is often specified by the mandate for the reporting programme. However, even in cases when the report is clearly focused on a country, there are needs to analyse specific issues on the level of ecological units (e.g., ecosystems, watershed, airsheds), usually both in subnational and transboundary contexts.

Table 2: Environmental assessment in ecosystems versus in political boundaries

Ecounit boundary


  • More meaningful interpretation of environmental trends relevant to specific ecosystems.
  • Better understanding of ecosystems as functional units.
  • Direct connection to ecosystem-scale policies.
  • Focused research results and analysis.


  • Limited availability of some data expressed at the scale of ecounit (particularly socio-economic data).
  • Political complexity arising from analysis of resources under shared jurisdiction.
Jurisdictional (political) boundary


  • More uniform regulatory environment.
  • More simple data collection.
  • Direct connection to jurisdiction-wide policies.


  • Resource-specific trends masked by data collected on the level of political   jurisdiction.
  • Difficulty detecting differences in ecosystem impacts of specific policies.

(Modified after Pintér, Zahedi and Cressman 2000)


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- - 09 Jul 2012
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- - 07 Jul 2012
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- - 06 Jul 2012
If the inventory is not recvieed during the reconcilliation period, no adjustment for the same will be made as the same is not been included in the physical stock in hand while taking stock. (Refer to the solution of Prob. no. 11)The goods purchased and accounted but not recvieed, are treated as Goods/Stock in Transit ..While showing the same in Balance Sheet, The Physical Stock is shown separately and Stock in transit is shown separately .
Module 5 - Integrated analysis of environmental trends and policies
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