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Amended Convention Text - as adopted in 2010

Protocol for the Protection of the Marine and Coastal Environment (LBSA Protocol)









Convention Text - as adopted in 1985

Protocol on Protected

Protocol on pollution emergencies








26 September 1994


Country Profile of Comoros

Capital City:


Geographic coordinates:

11° 20' and 11° 04' S and longitudes 43° 04' and 45° 19'E.


On a worldwide scale, the Comoros belong to the 20 islands or archipelagoes characterized by their endemic diversity (Caldecott and Al, 1960). The country counts a great diversity of plants and an important endemism which make of it a highly priority place of intervention for the conservation of the world biodiversity (WWF and UICN 1995).


711,417 (2007)


350 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive Economic Zone: 200 nautical miles, Territorial Sea: 12 nautical miles.

Further Resources

 To access publications, data, map files, services (image, data and geographic) , photographs, and projects on Comoros, kindly visit the Nairobi Convention Clearinghouse and Information Sharing System and the Comoros Clearinghouse and Information Sharing System.

  Comoros State of Coast Report (Draft). Download

 Focal Points Institutions roles and terms of reference. More

Economic activities:

Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry.

Marine Protected Areas:

There are no legally established MPAs in Comoros. However, there are proposals for the creation of two MPAs, namely, Coelacanth and Moheli MPAs.


Tropical with the influence of north-northwest monsoon ("kashkazi") which brings heavy rainfall from November to April. The trade winds from the south-southeast ("kussi") correspond to a dry and cool season. The average temperature range is 23°C to 28°C with variations depending on altitude.

Elevation Points:

Lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m, Highest point: Le Kartala 2,360 m


The Comoros, from their recent volcanic nature, their exiguity and their multi-insularity have a great originality which the diversity of the landscapes and the richness of the biodiversity (fauna and flora) translate.

The variety of the coastal and marine ecosystems met (coral mangroves, reefs, underwater beaches, herbaria) constitutes a potential to be protected and develop from the tourist point of view.

The Comorian flora and fauna intrinsically have interests economic, scientific, entertaining, aesthetic and cultural which deserve to be protected and developed. The discovery in 1938 of the Coelacanth (Latimeria Challumnae) in Comorian water allowed indeed, to make enormous progress in the field of the anatomical evolution of the vertebrate ones. This alive fossil which one believed extinct (it did not have there fossil traces of this fish since 80 million years) represents at the same time an example of a endemism led to the extreme and an animal whose position in the evolution is single. Coral, rich formations of 50 species, developed differently around the islands and this, in relation to the age of the islands and the local hydrodynamic conditions. They occupy approximately 60% of the littoral of Large-Comore, 80% of that of Anjouan and nearly 100% of that of Moheli.

National Action plan of Adaptation to the climatic changes (BREADED)

Executive Summary

The development of the National Action plan of Adaptation to the climatic changes (BREADED) is the fruit of a participative process which was pressed on basic studies, investigations of ground, consultations and many meetings of work and workshops. This Action plan rises from a preliminary analysis of the climate.

This analysis revealed a marked evolution of the climate, these thirty last years, by: fluctuations of precipitations and a shift in the season, of the early and prolonged dryness and, by a rise in the average temperature about 1C. The historical observation showed a tendency to the increase in the extreme weather phenomena during the same period. The participative evaluations of the vulnerability and the adaptation as well as the public investigations carried out in parallel within the framework of this action plan showed the great vulnerability in particular of the sectors ensuring the poor, the basic means of existence.

The sources of this vulnerability are: an economy largely dependent on the agricultural sector; les zones de subsidence ; difficult economic and social conditions, characterized by a high rate of unemployment and poverty; a fragile natural environment; a relatively high demographic growth; an agricultural intensification; a bad occupation of the grounds; insufficient institutional capacities; a context of weak economic diversification; problems of drinking water and the access to the resource; a concentration of the principal cities on the coastal fringe where the majority of the population saw; an obsolete legislation or insufficiently careful ;the chump-end-totality built infrastructures unless 6 oversized metres of the sea-level , in the absence of rules and protecting norms against climate risks in the conception and the infrastructures upkeep; the traditional habitat in straw and unaffected cob badly to inclemency.

The situation results in chronic difficulties of supply water, a fall of the agricultural production and inshore fishing, a reduction in the incomes, a high cost of access to food and an increase in the food insecurity. The diseases such as malaria, the dengue, the cholera, hepatitis A and the typhoid one progress to great steps as well as blindness.

The sector analyses and the socio-economic data made it possible to distinguish the farmers from subsistence and the fishermen (62%), the farmers of revenue and the stockbreeders (45%), the inactive ones (41%) and the independent ones of the abstract sector (39%), as being the most vulnerable groups.

The particularly vulnerable zones are the areas with weak pluviometry, generally located at the East of each island, with a relatively high demography and an incidence of poverty and presenting conditions favourable to the development of malaria and hydrous diseases, with abundance of the precarious habitat. The majority of the degraded grounds are in these zones where coastal erosion is also quite marked.

The anticipated potential impacts are a reduction accelerated in the agricultural production and fishing; an increased salinization (salt) of the aquifers coastal; an increase in the marine level of about 20 cm in 2050, with destruction of 29% of the roads and works by flood; a paralysis of the economic activities; the displacement from at least 10% of the population and a loss of 734 hectares cultivable grounds; disappearance of the reefs and the beaches with risks increased on the tourist potential; amplification and geographical extension of paludism and other diseases to vectorial transmission. Lastly, considerable losses on the level of the coastal infrastructures estimated at approximately 400 million USD, that is to say 2,2 times GDP of 2001.

The current and potential impacts of the climatic changes are likely to sap several decades of efforts against poverty and precariousness, today still prone of serious national concerns. . It is thus under the constraint and the urgency that the country was committed working out this Action plan in order to increase its capacity of resistance to change climatic and to the variability of the climate. This document does not have vocation to establish general objectives as regards development. It is articulated around the objectives of development in the short and medium term which contribute to the adaptation in order to increase their effectiveness.

The Comoros national clearinghouse portals offers data, metadata records, geospatial mapping, and data management functions. Data and information in the national clearinghouses continues to be populated with key marine and coastal issues including:
• Biodiversity of critical ecosystems and habitats
• Climate change and mitigation related issues
• Environmental disasters and hazards
• Resource use and production
• Policies, agreements, acts and legislation pertinent to the coastal environment
• Harmful substances and hazardous waste
• Socio-economic data
• Pollutant source categories
• Tools and best practices to support resource management and policies.


  • Comoros National Status Report on the Marine and Coastal Environment
  • Comoros Focal Point.
  • CIA - The World Factbook

National Focal Points

For more information, kindly contact the Nairobi Convention Focal Point for Comoros:

Zoubert Maecha Hamada  
Point Focal National de la Convention de Nairobi
E-mail: mahazou339@gmail.com