Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Landbased
Activities (GPA-Marine) was adopted by the international community in 1995
and to prevent the degradation of the marine environment from land-based activities
by facilitating the realization of the duty of States to preserve and protect the
marine environment. It is the only global initiative directly addressing the connectivity
between terrestrial, freshwater, coastal and marine ecosystems.
The Regional Seas Programme aims to address the accelerating degradation of the
world’s oceans and coastal areas through the sustainable management and use of
the marine and coastal environment, by engaging neighbouring countries in comprehensive
and specific actions to protect their shared marine environment.
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
Desertification is a major economic, social and environmental problem of concern to
many countries in all regions of the world. The convention was formed to solve the
problem of intensifying land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas.
Although desertification still remains a major environmental problem, impeding
dryland development, there are also many projects and community-based initiatives
which have successfully addressed these problems.
Convention on Biological Diversity
The Convention on Biological Diversity was inspired by the world community’s growing
commitment to sustainable development. It represents a dramatic step forward in
the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and
the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.
International Union for Conservation of Nature
Conserving biodiversity is fundamental to addressing some of the world’s greatest
challenges: tackling climate change, achieving sustainable energy, improving human
well-being and building a green economy.
Forests cover one third of the earth’s land mass, performing vital functions around
the world. In fact, 1.6 billion people depend on forests for their livelihoods. They
play a key role in our battle against climate change. Forests feed our rivers and are
essential to supplying the water for nearly 50 per cent of our largest cities.
Forests Policy Brief
Forests have always been crucial to human life and economies, and they will
become increasingly significant as the global human population grows. The entire
global population depends on forests for their carbon-sequestering services and
critical role in supporting the growth of a global green economy. This policy brief
seeks to outline how forests can be a key part of a green economy that provides
opportunities for innovative solutions to forest management.
Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone
This assessment looks into all aspects of anthropogenic emissions of black carbon
and tropospheric ozone precursors, such as methane and analyses the trends in
emissions of these substances and the drivers of these emissions.
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and its Montreal Protocol
on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer are dedicated to the protection of the
earth’s ozone layer. With 196 parties, they are the most widely ratified treaties in UN
history, and have enabled reductions of over 97 per cent of all global consumption
of controlled ozone depleting substances.
The UNEP OzonAction Branch assists developing countries and countries with
economies in transition to enable them to achieve and sustain compliance with the
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was formed
to consider what can be done to reduce global warming and to cope with whatever
temperature increases are inevitable. The Kyoto Protocol is an additional measure to
UNEP Year Book 2011: Emerging Issues in our Global Environment
The UNEP Year Book 2011, examines global emerging issues and provides the
latest environmental science. It also highlights major environmental events and
developments over the past year, and presents the most recent data and indicator
trends. he UNEP Year Book 2011 is essential reading for anyone with a keen interest
in the future of our planet.