TIME TO ACT

CCAC Annual Report (2013 - 2014)

The CCAC has taken great strides in 2014, welcoming many new partners and making great progress on each of its four objectives:

  • Raising awareness of SLCP impact and mitigation strategies;
  • Enhancing and developing new national and regional actions including identifying and overcoming barriers, enhancing capacity and mobilizing support;
  • Promoting best practices and showcasing successful efforts;
  • Improving scientific understanding of SLCP impacts and mitigation strategies.
 Climate and Clean Air Coalition, 2014

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Authors:: Climate and Clean Air Coalition.
Date: 2014
Subject: CCAC
TIME TO ACT

TIME TO ACT to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (Version 2)

Through updated text and new graphics, this second edition of the publication explains what short-lived climate pollutants are and what effects they have on our lives. It demonstrates in a comprehensive way the challenges and opportunities presented by these pollutants, including their relevance to near-term climate change, public health and food and energy security. Climate and Clean Air Coalition, 2014

Printable PDF | e-book | iBook App (for Macs and iPads) | Individual graphics  | Icons

Authors:: Climate and Clean Air Coalition.
Date: 2014
Subject: Short-Lived Climate Pollutants, slcp, black carbon, methane, tropospheric ozone, HFC

Reports

On Thin Ice

The Cost of Air Pollution: Health Impacts of Road Transport

This study reports on the economic cost of the health impacts of air pollution from road transport – on a global scale but with special reference to China, India and the OECD countries. OECD, 2014

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Authors:: The World Bank, International Cryosphere Climate Initiative.
Date: 2013
Subject: Cryosphere, global warming
On Thin Ice

On Thin Ice: How Cutting Pollution Can Slow Warming and Save Lives

This report is about how climate change is affecting the cryosphere—those snow-capped mountain ranges, brilliant glaciers, and vast permafrost regions on which all of us depend. It lays out 14 specific measures we could take by 2030 to reduce short-lived climate pollutants and slow the melting of ice and snow that must stay frozen to keep oceans and global temperatures from rising even faster. The World Bank, International Cryosphere Climate Initiative, 2013

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Authors:: The World Bank, International Cryosphere Climate Initiative.
Date: 2013
Subject: Cryosphere, global warming
Atmospheric Brown Clouds Emission Inventory Manual

Atmospheric Brown Clouds Emission Inventory Manual

This report offers a guide to compiling emission inventories in developed and developing countries, as well as a training material for human resource development. The Emission Inventory Manual is accompanied by an Excel-based workbook, which can be used for compilation and estimation of ABCs emissions from different sources. UNEP, 2013.

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Authors:: The report should be referred to as: Shrestha, R.M., Kim Oanh, N.T., Shrestha, R. P., Rupakheti, M., Rajbhandari, S., Permadi, D.A., Kanabkaew, T., and Iyngararasan, M.
Date: 2013
Subject: Atmospheric Brown Clouds
Primer on Short-Lived Climate Pollutants

Primer on Short-Lived Climate Pollutants

This report provides a summary of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), including: an introduction to SLCPs; explanation of the multiple benefits of reducing SLCPs with respect to climate, human health and food security; and a menu of mitigation options for reducing SLCPs, including international and regional initiatives, such as the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC). Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development (IGSD), 2013.

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Authors:: The Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development
Date: 2012
Subject: slcp, short-lived climate pollutants, summary
Brick Kilns Performance Assessment: A Roadmap for Cleaner Brick Production in India

Brick Kilns Performance Assessment: A Roadmap for Cleaner Brick Production in India

This report assesses the environmental, energy and financial performance of brick production in India. Drawing on this assessment, it provides short-term recommendations to improve brick kiln technologies, including: (1) adoption of cleaner kiln technologies; (2) promotion of internal fuel in brick making by mechanizing the brick making process; (3) promotion of mechanized coal stoking systems; (4) diversifying products, and (5) promotion of modern renewable energy technologies in brick making.
Greentech Knowledge Solutions, Enzen Global Solutions, University of Illinois, Clean Air Task Force, Entec AG, 2012.

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Authors:: Greentech Knowledge Solutions, Enzen Global Solutions, University of Illinois, Clean Air Task Force, Entec AG
Date: 2012
Subject: brick kiln, mechanized coal stoking, renewable energy
Reducing Black Carbon Emissions in South Asia: Low Cost Opportunities

Reducing Black Carbon Emissions in South Asia: Low Cost Opportunities

This report is intended to help achieve near-term climate and other benefits by providing information and examples of a variety of low-cost, high-impact and high feasibility opportunities to reduce black carbon emissions in South Asia. The report states this region is especially vulnerable to the multiplicity of impacts attributable to black carbon. US Environmental Protection Agency, 2012.

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Authors:: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Date: 2012
Subject: black carbon emmisions
Health effects of black carbon

Health effects of black carbon

This report presents the results of a systematic review of evidence of the health effects of black carbon (BC). The Task Force on Health agreed that a reduction in exposure to PM2.5 containing BC and other combustion-related PM material for which BC is an indirect indicator should lead to a reduction in the health effects associated with PM. The Task Force recommended that PM2.5 should continue to be used as the primary metric in quantifying human exposure to PM and the health effects of such exposure, and for predicting the benefits of exposure reduction measures. The use of BC as an additional indicator may be useful in evaluating local action aimed at reducing the population’s exposure to combustion PM (for example, from motorized traffic). WHO, 2012.

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Authors:: World Health Organization (WHO)
Date: 2012
Subject: black carbon, PM, PM2.5
Report to Congress on Black Carbon

Report to Congress on Black Carbon

This report synthesizes and assesses available scientific information on the current and future impacts of black carbon, and evaluates the effectiveness of available black carbon mitigation approaches and technologies for protecting climate, public health, and the environment. US Environmental Protection Agency, 2012.

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Authors:: USEPA
Date: 2012
Subject: black carbon, ozone, tropospheric ozone; methane
Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone: Summary for Decision Makers

Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone

Black carbon and tropospheric ozone have detrimental impacts on health, climate and the environment. This assessment looks into all aspects of anthropogenic emissions of black carbon and tropospheric ozone precursors, such as methane. It also examines a large number of technically feasible measures to reduce harmful emissions and identifies 16 measures that would produce important climate, health and crop yield benefits. UNEP/WMO, 2011.

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Authors:: UNEP, WMO
Date: 2011
Subject: black carbon, ozone, tropospheric ozone; methane
Near-term Climate Protection and Clean Air Benefits: Actions for Controlling Short-Lived Climate Forcers

Near-term Climate Protection and Clean Air Benefits: Actions for Controlling Short-Lived Climate Forcers - A UNEP Synthesis Report

This report addresses the mitigation of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) and its key role in air pollution reduction, climate protection and sustainable development. SLCFs are substances in the atmosphere that contribute to global warming and have relatively short lifetimes in the atmosphere. The focus is on three SLCFs – black carbon, tropospheric ozone and methane – because reducing them will provide significant benefits through improved air quality and a slowing of near-term climate change. UNEP, 2011.

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Authors: UNEP
Date: 2011
Subject: black carbon, ozone, tropospheric ozone; methane
HFCs: A Critical Link in Protecting Climate and the Ozone Layer - A UNEP Synthesis Report

HFCs: A Critical Link in Protecting Climate and the Ozone Layer - A UNEP Synthesis Report

Due to the phase-out of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), under the Montreal Protocol, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions are dangerously growing. This report describes the linkages between hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions, climate protection, and protection of the ozone layer. UNEP, 2011.

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Authors: UNEP
Date: 2011
Subject: hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs); halocarbons (HCFCs); Montreal Protocol; ozone depleting substances (ODS);
The Impact of Black Carbon on Arctic Climate.

The Impact of Black Carbon on Arctic Climate.

Immediate reduction of black carbon and other short-lived climate pollutants could delay a rapid thawing of the Arctic region. This report provides a comprehensive overview of black carbon in the Arctic region, including a summary of key findings relevant for policy and science.
Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), 2011

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Authors: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP)
Date: 2011
Subject: Black carbon
Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Regional Assessment Report with Focus on Asia

Atmospheric Brown Clouds: Regional Assessment Report with Focus on Asia.

The report, compiled by a team of researchers from Asia, Europe and the United States, discussed the effects of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) in the Asian region.

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Authors: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP)
Date: 2011
Subject: Black carbon

Articles

Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, C. S. Zender - January 2013 - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

This assessment provides an evaluation of black-carbon climate forcing that is comprehensive in its inclusion of all known and relevant processes and that is quantitative in providing best estimates and uncertainties of the main forcing terms: direct solar absorption, influence on liquid, mixed-phase, and ice clouds, and deposition on snow and ice.

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Authors:: T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, C. S. Zender
In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, January 2013
Date: January 2013
Subject: black carbon, climate system

The Climate Threat We Can Beat

Victor D. G., Kennel C. F., Ramanathan V. – May 2012 - Foreign Affairs

The article focuses on the need for climate diplomacy to shift from carbon dioxide to other pollutants that contribute to global warming and that can be combated with less cost. It states that black carbon, industrial gases such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons, lower atmospheric ozone, and methane are believed to contribute to at least 40 percent of global warming as of 2012. Existing technologies and policies would readily allow for significant cuts in these pollutants. It talks about the 1987 Montreal Protocol banning CFCs and other ozone layer depleters.

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Authors:: Victor D. G., Kennel C. F., Ramanathan V.
In: Foreign Affairs [serial online]. May 2012;91(3):112-121
Date: May 2012
Subject: Tropospheric ozone; black carbon; methane; Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)

Preserving Montreal Protocol Climate Benefits by Limiting HFCs

Velders G. J. M., Ravishankara A. R., Miller M. K., Molina M. J., et al. – February 2012 - Science

The Montreal Protocol is perhaps the most successful international environmental treaty, responsible for global phaseout of the consumption and production of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), e.g., chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which do not destroy stratospheric ozone, were considered long-term substitutes for ODSs and are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. Because most HFCs are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs), they are included in the Kyoto Protocol. But climate benefits provided by this protocol are limited as they apply only to developed countries and over a short time (2008–2012). As we describe below, with no impending global controls on HFCs, inclusion of HFCs under the Montreal Protocol offers a path, starting in the short term, to preserve the climate benefits already achieved by this protocol.

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Authors:: Velders G. J. M., Ravishankara A. R., Miller M. K., Molina M. J., et al
In: Science, Vol. 335 no. 6071 pp. 922-923
Date: February 2012
Subject: Montreal protocol; Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), ozone-depleting substances (ODSs)

Simultaneously mitigating near-term climate change and improving human health and food security

Shindell D, Kuylenstierna JCI, Vignati E, Van Dingenen R, et al. – January 2012 - Science

Tropospheric ozone and black carbon contribute to both degraded air quality and global warming. This article examines a range of feasible measures to mitigate methane, one of the main precursors of ozone, and black carbon and identifies a set of 14 measures that would deliver large benefits.

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Authors:: Shindell D, Kuylenstierna JCI, Vignati E, Van Dingenen R, et al
In: Science, N° 335, 6-20 JAN 2012, pp183-189.
Date: January 2012
Subject: Tropospheric ozone; black carbon; methane

Global Air Quality and Health Co-Benefits of Mitigating Near-Term Climate Change through Methane and Black Carbon Emission Controls

Anenberg SC, Schwartz J, Shindell D, Amann M, Faluvegi G, et al. – March 2012 - Environmental Health Perspectives

Tropospheric ozone and black carbon are associated with premature mortality and disrupt global and regional climate. This article examines the air quality and health benefits of 14 specific emission control measures targeting Black carbon and methane, an ozone precursor, that are selected for their potential to reduce the rate of climate change over the next 20-40 years.

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Authors:: Anenberg SC, Schwartz J, Shindell D, Amann M, Faluvegi G, et al
In: Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) doi:10.1289/ehp.1104301
Date: March 2012
Subject: Tropospheric ozone; black carbon; methane

The Copenhagen Accord for Limiting Global Warming: Criteria, Constraints, and Available Avenues

Ramanathan V., Yangyang X. – May 2010 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA

This study develops the criteria for limiting warming below 2 °C, identifies the constraints imposed on policy makers, and explores available mitigation avenues. One important criterion is that the radiant energy added by human activities should not exceed 2.5 (range: 1.7–4) watts per square meter (Wm−2) of the Earth's surface. The blanket of man-made greenhouse gases (GHG) has already added 3 (range: 2.6–3.5) Wm−2. Even if GHG emissions peak in 2015, the radiant energy barrier will be exceeded by 100%, requiring simultaneous pursuit of three avenues which are discussed in the article. With such actions, the four decades we have until 2050 should be exploited to develop and scale-up revolutionary technologies to restrict the warming to less than 1.5 °C.

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