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Formalization of the ASGM Sector

In order to promote the establishment of sound legal frameworks for the ASGM sector, UNEP conducted a study of formalization approaches in ASGM based on experiences in Ecuador, Mongolia, Peru, Tanzania and Uganda. This work resulted in case-studies documents on the five above-mentioned countries. The analysis document identifies key recommendations which inform the debate and identifies lessons learned that may be applicable in other countries.

Formalization is a key factor enabling outreach on mercury management and other social concerns in ASGM communities.  While formalization of the sector remains a significant challenge, the lack of formalization in ASGM is widely considered a barrier for miners in implementing change.


Miner burning a gold-mercury amalgam, 2011.
Source : K. Telmer Artisanal Gold Council

Analysis of Formalization Approaches (final document June 2012)
Analysis of formalization approaches in the artisanal and small-scale gold mining sector based on experiences in Ecuador, Mongolia, Peru, Tanzania and Uganda

Case Studies