The United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Minamata Convention on Mercury: A comparison for the coal combustion sector
The report describes the two conventions and their approaches and compares them with regard to control of mercury emissions from the coal combustion sector.
Mercury Emissions Capture Efficiency with Activated Carbon Injection at a Russian Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant
The report presents results of a collaborative demonstration of mercury air emission reduction at the 8 MW pilot plant located at coal-fired Cherepetskaya Thermal Power Plant in Russia. The pilot plant was equipped with an activated carbon (AC) injection system and an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The use of standard AC with an injection rate of 160 mg/m3 resulted in total Hg removal in the ESP ranging from 67 to about 80%. An injection of only about 30 mg/m3 of brominated AC was needed to achieve a comparable level of Hg removal. The use of brominated AC with an injection rate of up to 110 mg/m3 resulted in total Hg removal of up to 90%. Leaching tests indicated that Hg is strongly bound to the surface of the particles (either fly ash particles or sorbent particles). For all types of fly ash residuals tested, none were found to exceed USEPA’s Hg standard for drinking water quality.
Collaborative studies for mercury characterization in coal and coal combustion products, Republic of South Africa
The report provides technical information on the concentration of mercury and associated constituents such as trace elements and halogens in feed coals used in South African utilities. In addition, it provides data to assess mercury removal by coal washing procedures used or being developed in South Africa. The results show how coal selection, coal washing and operational changes (e.g. optimization of equipment and changing operational parameters) can be used to optimize mercury capture in the South African electric utility sector, thereby reducing emissions.
Assessment of the Mercury Content in Coal fed to Power Plants and study of Mercury Emissions from the Sector in India
The report characterizes the coal-fired power sector in India, and includes a description of coal consumption, coal quality, results from coal analysis, pollutants controls in the sector, and an inventory of mercury emissions from the sector.
Reducing Mercury Emissions from Coal Combustion in the Energy Sector in Russia - Demonstration of Adding Chemical Reagents to Increase Mercury Capture
The report presents a demonstration of mercury air emission reduction at a coal-fired power plant in Russia. A wet particulate matter (PM) scrubber installed in Toliatti thermal plant has been modified to allow for addition of chemical reagents (oxidants) into the closed-loop liquid spray system. The addition of oxidant resulted in significant improvement of mercury capture from 20% total mercury removal (without the additive) up to 60% removal (with the additive).
Black carbon emissions in India
Dr L L Sloss, October 2012
Black carbon (BC) is a product of inefficient combustion and is involved with several detrimental environmental issues. Global emissions of BC have been increasing over the recent centuries due to industrial development, China and India being the current greatest regional sources. This report summarises India's present and future emissions and highlights areas where reduction strategies are most likely to be effective.
Mercury emissions from India and South East Asia
Dr L L Sloss, October 2012
The report summarizes the limited data available on mercury emissions from India, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Where possible, it includes information on the major sources of mercury, estimates for emissions on current fossil fuel use and industrial activity, regulations or action plans on emissions and recommendations for potential actions in these countries.
Reducing Mercury Emission from Coal Combustion in the energy sector in South Africa
Process Optimization Guidance (POG) for Reducing Mercury Emissions from Coal Combustion in Power plants
January 2011 English version - Russian version - Chinese Version
The POG is a tool to help determine the approaches to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants, in many cases a co-benefit of reducing emissions of other pollutants. The POG allows for a preliminary selection of a mercury control strategy for a given power plant. In general, the POG is also applicable to coal-fired large industrial boilers.
Reducing mercury emissions from coal combustion in the energy sector in China
The report characterizes the coal-fired power sector in China, and includes a description of coal consumption, coal quality, results from coal analysis, pollutants controls in the sector, and an inventory of mercury emissions from the sector.
Reducing mercury emissions from coal combustion in the energy sector of the Russian Federation
The report characterizes the coal-fired power sector in The Russian Federation, and includes a description of coal consumption, coal quality, results from coal analysis, pollutants controls in the sector, and an inventory of mercury emissions from the sector.
Economics of mercury control
Dr L L Sloss, July 2008
The report summarizes the regulatory situation regarding mercury emissions in different countries, the status of mercury control technology development, and the cost of emission reduction in coal-fired power plants. Where possible, the economic evaluation includes any increased costs due to changes in waste disposal options for coal-combustion by-products. The report also considers mercury control options during coal processing and preparation.
Economics of mercury control - Summary document
Dr L L Sloss, July 2008