CONCLUSION

Biodiversity is in need of wise management, not simply to satisfy international pressures and obligations, but because it is the basis of most rural livelihoods and is the foundation of major new economic sectors that offer the prospect of better, more sustainable lives.

As NEPAD has recognized, development cannot be achieved through dependence on outside resources, but must rely on the best use of local resources. Biodiversity is one of these, and represents a formidable natural asset. For example, the international trade in flowers bred from a large number of plant species originating in Africa is worth billions of dollars annually, almost all of which accrues outside Africa. For the opportunities offered by biodiversity to be realized, new strategies, which go beyond a focus on a few species and parks, will need to be adopted.

New links need to be made between protecting biodiversity and human needs. There is a need for more function-oriented conservation of ecosystem services essential for human livelihood, including the people-dominated landscapes outside parks (Adams 2001). The coincidence of centres of biodiversity, human cultural heritage and intensive land use partly defines the necessary strategy for conservation and sustainable use policy. If viable populations are to be preserved, particularly in the light of an uncertain future climate, biodiversity conservation cannot be restricted to protected areas, but has to be incorporated as part of sustainable land use even in densely settled areas (Scholes and Biggs 2005). Likewise, conservation of human culture within centres of biodiversity requires approaches different from the concept of protected areas exclusively dedicated to species conservation (Adams 2001, Adams and Hulme 2001, Jepson and Canney 2001). Except under special circumstances, for example, where nature tourism is the best economic land use (Carret and Loyer 2003), species and park-centred strategies of biodiversity conservation are unlikely to achieve poverty reduction goals. Although biodiversity conservation objectives often overlap with other priorities for sustainable use (for example, the conservation of water catchment areas), the overall outcome of such integrated strategies will need to go beyond solely biodiversity-centred conservation targets. This principle is reflected in the “ecosystem approach” adopted by the CBD in 2000 (UNEP 2004b) and underlies the interlinkages approach discussed in Chapter 8: Interlinkages: The Environment and Policy Web. Clear and convergent objectives, verifiable targets, collaboration and coordination between conventions and between countries, focused and sustained capacity-building, and harmonized reporting requirements are needed to advance the regional development objectives.