Developing a sustainable agricultural strategy that ensures food security, does not threaten the environment or biodiversity, and promotes human well-being must be a priority for Africa. Africa is faced with the decision of whether GM crops can be part of this, and if so, how to manage the risks and uncertainties associated with GM technology. In evaluating the options, Africa needs to consider the potential benefits from possible yield gains and a decrease in the need for chemical use against the threats posed to biodiversity, livelihoods and cultural systems.