ABBREVIATIONS

A

AAT Animal African Trypanosomiasis
ABSF African Biotechnology Stakeholders Forum
ACCNNR African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
ACT Action by Churches Together
AEC African Economic Community
AEIN Africa Environmental Information Network
AEO Africa Environment Outlook
AEO-EIS Africa Environment Outlook – Environmental Information System
AfDB African Development Bank
AFLEG Africa Forest Law Enforcement and Governance
AGERI Agriculture Genetic Engineering Research Institute
AGOA African Growth and Opportunity Act
AGRHYMET Centre for Agro-meteorology and Operational Hydrology
AIACC Assessment of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change
AMCEN African Ministerial Conference on the Environment
AMCOW African Ministerial Council on Water
AMMA African Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis
AMU Arab Maghreb Union
ANBO African Network of Basin Organizations
ANC African National Congress
AOSIS Alliance of Small Island States
APAI African Protected Areas Initiative
APRM African Peer Review Mechanism
ARI Acute respiratory infections
ARI Advanced Research Institute
ASAL Arid and semi-arid lands
ASP Africa Stockpiles Programme
ATO African Timber Organization
AU African Union

B

bbl/d barrels per day
BCLME Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem
BOTT Build, Operate, Train and Transfer
BPoA Barbados Programme of Action
BSE Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
Bt Bacillus thuringiensis

C

CAADP Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme
CAMPFIRE Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources
Cap-Net Capacity Building for Integrated Water Resources Management
CAR Central African Republic
CARPE Central African Regional Program for the Environment
CBD Convention on Biological Diversity
CBFP Congo Basin Forest Partnership
CBNRM Community-based natural resource management
CBO Community-based organization
CDM Clean Development Mechanism
CEDARE Centre for Environment and Development for the Arab Region and Europe
CEMAC Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa
CEN-SAD Community of Sahel-Saharan States
CEOSS Coptic Evangelical Organization for Social Services
CFC Chlorofluorocarbon
CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
CI Conservation International
CI Consumers International
CIDA Canadian International Development Agency
CILSS Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel
CIMMYT International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre
CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna
CMS Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals
COMESA Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
COMIFAC Central Africa Forests Commission
COP Conference of the Parties
COTS Crown-of-thorns starfish
CPUE Catch per Unit Effort
CRDB Co-operative and Rural Development Bank
CRIC Committee for the Review of the Implementation of the Convention (UNCCD)
CSIR South African Council on Scientific and Industrial Research
CSO Civil society organization

D

DANIDA Danish International Development Agency
DDT Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
DGEF Division of Global Environment Facility Coordination
DGIS Netherlands Directorate General for International Cooperation
DIVERSITAS Integrating Biodiversity Science of Human Well-being
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid
DNOC DiNitroOrthoCresol
DRC Democratic Republic of the Congo
DTF Devolution Trust Fund

E

EAC East African Community
ECA United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
ECCAS Economic Community of Central African States
ECOFAC Ecosystèmes Forestiers d’Afrique Centrale
ECOSOC United Nations Economic and Social Council
ECOSOCC Economic, Social and Cultural Council of the AU
ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone
EGRAP Ethiopian Groundwater Resource Assessment Programme
EIA Environmental impact assessment
EIB European Investment Bank
EMS Environmental management systems
ENGDA Ethiopian National Groundwater Database
ENSO El Niño/Southern Oscillation
EPARM Ethiopian Pharmaceuticals Manufacturing
EPZ Export Processing Zone
ESA European Space Agency
EU European Union

F

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FAR Forces Armées Rwandaises
FAS Femmes Africa Solidarité
FAWE Forum for African Women Educationalists
FDI Foreign direct investment
FEWS-NET Famine Early Warning Systems Network
FNLA Front for the Liberation of Angola
FRIEND Flow Regimes from International Experimental and Network Data

G

G8 Group of 8
GAFRD General Authority of Fish Resources Development
GBM Green Belt Movement
GCM General Circulation Model
GDI Gender-related Development Index
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GE Genetic engineering
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEM Gender Empowerment Measure
GENØK Norwegian Institute of Gene Ecology
GEO Global Environment Outlook
GFMC Global Fire Monitoring Centre
GHG Greenhouse gases
GISP Global Invasive Species Programme
GIWA Global International Waters Assessment
GLCN Global Land Cover Network
GLR Great Lakes Region
GM Genetically modified
GMMR Great Man-Made River
GMO Genetically modified organism
GNP Gross National Product
GSM Global System for Mobile Communication
GURT genetic use restriction technologies
GWP Global Water Partnership

H

HAT Human African Trypanosomiasis
HDI Human Development Index
HIPC Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
HYDROMET Hydrometeorological Survey of the Catchments of Lakes Victoria, Kyoga and Albert

I

IAS Invasive alien species
IATC Inter-Agency Technical Committee
IBA Important Bird Area
ICAM Integrated Coastal Area Management
ICCM International Conference on Chemicals Management
ICPAC IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre
ICT Information and Communication Technology
ICZM Integrated Coastal Zone Management
IDPs Internally displaced persons
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGAD Intergovernmental Authority on Development
ILO International Labour Organization
ILRI International Livestock Research Centre
IMF International Monetary Fund
INERA Institut National de l’Environnement et la Recherche Agronomique
IOC Indian Ocean Commission
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPPC International Plant Protection Convention
IPM Integrated Pest Management
IPR Intellectual property rights
IRMA Insect-Resistant Maize for Africa
ISAAA International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications
ISO International Standards Organization
ITC International Institutions for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observations
ITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone
ITDG Practical Action (Formerly the Intermediate Technology Development Group)
IUCEA Inter-University Council for East Africa
IUCN IUCN – The World Conservation Union
IUCN-EARP IUCN’s Eastern Africa Regional Programme
IUU Illegal, unregulated and unreported
IWRM Integrated water resources management

K

KARI Kenyan Agricultural Research Institute
KWS Kenya Wildlife Service

L

LADA Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands
LCBC Lake Chad Basin Commission
LDCs Least Developed Countries
LEAP Local Environment Action Program
LEED Leadership Energy and Environment Design
LME Large Marine Ecosystem
LMO Living modified organism
LNG Liquefied Natural gas
LOICZ Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone
LPA Lagos Plan of Action
LPG Liquid propane gas
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LVD Lake Victoria Development Programme
LVEMP Lake Victoria Environmental Management Programme

M

MA Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
MANR Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (Egypt)
MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
MARWOPNET Mano River Women’s Network
MDG Millennium Development Goal
MEA Multilateral environmental agreement
MedWet Mediterranean Wetlands Initiative
MI Millennium Institute
MIKE Monitoring of the Illegal Killing of Elephants
MJO Intra-Seasonal Oscillations
MPA Marine Protected Area
MPLA Movimento Popular da Libertação de Angola
MSY Maximum sustainable yield

N

NAP National action programmes
NAP National Action Plan
NAPA National Adaptation Program of Action
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NBCBN-RE Nile Basin Capacity Building Network for River Engineering
NBI Nile Basin Initiative
NCA Norwegian Church Aid
NEAP National Environmental Action Plan
NEH Northern Energy Highway
NELSAP Nile Equatorial Lakes Subsidiary Action Programme
NEMC National Environment Management Council
NEPAD New Partnership for Africa’s Development
NEPAD-EAP New Partnership for Africa’s Development Environment Action Plan
NERICA New Rice for Africa
NESDA Network for Environment and Sustainable Development in Africa
NGO Non-governmental organization
Nile-COM Council of Ministers of Water Affairs of the Nile Basin States
Nile-SEC NBI Secretariat
Nile-TAC Nile Technical Advisory Committee
NIP National implementation plan
NPACD National Action Plan to Combat Desertification
NTBF New technology-based firm
NTFP Non-timber forest product

O

O&M Operations and maintenance
OAU Organization of African Unity
OAU/SEAF Organization of African Unity Special Emergency Assistance Fund for Drought and Famine in Africa
ODA Official development assistance
ODA Overseas development assistance
ODS Ozone Depleting Substances
OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
OHADA Organisation d’Harmonisation du Droit des Affaires en Afrique
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

P

PA Programme Area
PANAFCON Pan-African Conference on Implementation and Partnership on Water
PBT Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic
PCB Poly-chlorinated biphenyls
PCFV Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles
PELUM Participatory Ecological Land Use Management
PERSGA The Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden
PFP Policy Framework Paper
PIC Prior Informed Consent
PLEC People, Land Management and Environmental Change
PM Particulate Matter
PNV Parc National des Volcans
POP Persistent organic pollutants
PPP Purchasing Power Parity
PPP Public-private-partnership
PPP Polluter pays principle
PRS Poverty Reduction Strategies
PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Programme
PRSP Poverty reduction strategy paper
PV Photovoltaic
PVS Participatory Varietal Selection

Q

QBO Quasi-Biennial Oscillations

R

R&D Research and Development
RAP Regional Action Programme
RAPAC Central African Protected Areas Network
RATES Regional Agricultural Trade Expansion Support
RBDA River Basin Development Authorities
REC Regional economic community
REFAD Renewable Energy for African Development
RELMA Regional Land and Water Management Unit
RES Renewable energy sources
RISDP Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan
RUF Revolutionary United Front

S

SABRE-Gen South African Bulk Renewable Energy – Generation
SADC Southern African Development Community
SADC-DMC Southern African Development Community Drought Monitoring Centre
SAICM Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management
SAP Structural Adjustment Programme
SARCOF Southern Africa Regional Climate Outlook Forum
SARDC Southern African Research and Documentation Centre
SARS Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
SDC Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
SDI Spatial Development Initiatives
SEI Stockholm Environment Institute
SFIT Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
SHS Solar home system
SIDS Small Island Developing States
SME Small and medium enterprises
SNEL Société Nationale d’Electricité
SOI Southern Oscillation Index
SPLASH Special Program on Learning and Awareness on Species and Habitats
SPLM/A Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army
SPS Sanitary and Phytosanitary
SRAP SADC Sub-Regional Action Programme
SSA Sub-Saharan Africa
STAP Short-term action plan
STAP-TWR Short-term action plan for Transboundary Water Resources
SWIOFP South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project

T

T21 Threshold 21
TARDA Tana and Athi Rivers Development Authority
TBNRM Transboundary natural resource management
TDR Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases
TECCONILE Technical Cooperation Committee for the Promotion of the Development and Environmental Protection of the Nile Basin
TIGER-SHIP Earth Observation for integrated water resources management in Africa
TPN Thematic Programme Network
TPRI Tropical Pesticides Research Institute
TRIPS Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
TWh Terawatt hours

U

ULIMO United Liberation Movement for Democracy in Liberia
UN United Nations
UNCCD United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNESCO-IHE United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s Institute for Water Education
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNITA União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola
UNSO Office to Combat Desertification and Drought
UNU United Nations University
UNU-INWEH UNU’s International Network on Water, Environment and Health
USAID United States Agency for International Development
UV ultra violet
UXO Unexploded ordinance

V

VAD Vitamin A deficiency
VMT Verification and Monitoring Team

W

WA-Net West Africa Capacity Building Network
WARDA West African Rice Development Association
WAVE Women as the Voice of the Environment
WCD World Commission on Dams
WCED World Commission on Environment and Development
WDM Water demand management
WFP United Nations World Food Programme
WHO World Health Organization
WIMSA Working Group of Indigenous Minorities in Southern Africa
WIO Western Indian Ocean
WIO-LaB Addressing Land-Based Activities in the Western Indian Ocean
WMO-DMC World Meteorological Organization Drought Monitoring Centre
WRI World Resources Institute
WRM Water Resources Management
WSP Water and Sanitation Program
WSSD World Summit on Sustainable Development
WTO World Trade Organization
WWF WWF – the World Wide Fund for Nature

Z

ZAMCOM Zambezi River Commission
ZIMOZA Zimbabwe-Mozambique-Zambia Transboundary Natural Resource Management Initiative