DEWA

Division of Early Warning and Assessment

LAND/ FORESTS

Montane ForestsThe role and contribution of montane forests to the Kenyan economy report

The montane forests of Kenya, better known as Kenya’s “Water Towers”, produce direct economic value for its citizens. This value accrues not only from the production of various timber and non-timber forest products, but also from a range of regulating ecosystem services that provide an insurance value to several key economic sectors. This report estimates these economic values, by means of best international analytical practices and environmental and economic evidence from Kenya, and shows that montane forests have consistently been undervalued in conventional national accounting.

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WEST AFRICA DRYLANDS

UNEP/DEWA conducted assessments of land health and natural resource degradation in the West Africa Sahel in partnership with The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), the Centre for Environmental Policy of the University of Florida and the governments of Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal. The reports, with summaries for decision makers, are below:

LAND HEALTH SURVEILLANCE

Land Health Surveillance ReportLand Health Surveillance: An Evidence-Based Approach to Land Ecosystem Management. Illustrated with a Case Study in the West Africa Sahel

The report illustrates the land health surveillance concepts with a case study in the West Africa Sahel, presenting results on regional remote sensing studies of historical changes in vegetation growth and rainfall patterns in the West Africa Sahel and on field level assessment of land degradation in Mali. Implications of the methods and results for development policy and research are given.

Download: [Main Report] [Summary for decision makers]



Sahel AtlasSahel Atlas of Changing Landscapes: Tracing trends and variations in vegetation cover and soil condition

The atlas aims to illustrate a rigorous scientific basis for understanding processes of landscape change in the Sahel and describes landscapes, climate, vegetation, and trends in vegetation and soil health.

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ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING

Environmental AccountingEnvironmental Accounting of National Economic Systems: An Analysis of West African Dryland Countries within a Global Context

The work evaluates implications of countries’ natural resource use on economic systems. Detailed environmental accounting is provided for 134 national economies with a special focus on five dryland countries of the West Africa Sahel (Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Senegal). The study uses a biophysical accounting approach to quantifying natural resource stocks and flows, and their transformations to generate economic activity.

Download: [Main Report] [Summary for decision makers]



Ecosystem Services and Rural LivelihoodsEcosystem Services and Rural Livelihoods in the Sahel: Environmental Accounting and Wealth Surveys

Environmental accounting is used in conjunction with data from the literature to evaluate the costs and benefits of different land-use systems in the Sahel on environmental services and ultimately on the populations that depend on them. The analysis illustrates the magnitude of services that accrue from the land in this region, where land degradation is an epidemic problem, and points to policies that protect land resources. Based on results from a rural wealth survey of over 2,700 households across 77 villages in Mali, the links between ecosystem service degradation and household wealth are analysed.

Download: [Main Report] [Summary for decision makers]

EAST AFRICAN MONTANE FORESTS

UNEP/DEWA is involved in the assessment of the threats to critical montane forests in East Africa. Some of the key findings are shown in the exhibition "East African Montane Forests". The main reports are listed below.

Exhibition

The exhibition "East African Montane Forests" was prepared by UNEP based on work undertaken with key partners in four critical montane areas: Mt. Kenya, the Aberdare Range, the Mau Complex and Mt. Kilimanjaro. See more..

AERIAL MONITORING OF FOREST BOUNDARIES


With support from UNEP, the Kenya Wildlife Service and the Kenya Forest Service have joined hands in monitoring periodically the boundaries of all gazetted forests in Kenya. The objective is to detect any encroachment or settlement into forest as early as possible before they expand and become to difficult to address. See more..

REPORTS ON KENYA'S FIVE MAIN CATCHMENTS


Catchment 2005Forest cover changes in Kenya's five"water towers", 2003-2005

The report is a continuation of the study of the changes in forest cover in Kenya's five major catchment areas. It covers the period 2003-2005. It is based on satellite images and was prepared by the Kenya Forests Working Group and the Department of Resource Survey and Remote Sensing with funding from the Dutch Embassy and under the supervision of Christian Lambrechts, UNEP/DEWA.


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Catchment 2003Forest cover changes in Kenya's five"water towers", 2000-2003

The study looks at the changes in forest cover in Kenya's five major catchment areas between 2000 and 2003. It is based on satellite images. The report was prepared by the Kenya Forests Working Group and the Department of Resource Survey and Remote Sensing with funding from the Dutch Embassy and under the supervision of Christian Lambrechts, UNEP/DEWA.

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REPORTS ON INDIVIDUAL MONTANE FORESTS


Environmental,social and economic assessment of the fencing of the Aberdare Conservation AreaEnvironmental, social and economic assessment of the fencing of the Aberdare Conservation Area

This study was carried out to assess the environmental, social and economic effects of the electrifi ed fence around the Aberdare Conservation Area – a length of fence of nearly 400 km. The construction of the fence took nearly twenty years of planning, fund raising and mobilization of government, donor, private partners and adjacent communities’ resources.

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Aberdare RangesAberdare Range

Aerial survey of forests. At the request of Rhino Ark, UNEP, Kenya Wildlife Service and the Kenya Forests Working Group undertook an aerial survey of the destruction of the Aberdare Range forests. The Aberdare forests are one of Kenya's five main "water towers" and play a critical role in supporting the country's economy. The report of the survey was launched in June 2003. It revealed wanton destruction brought upon this critical ecosystem.

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Aberdare RangesMt. Kenya

Aerial survey of forests. Kenya Wildlife Service undertook an aerial survey of Mt. Kenya forests with the support of UNEP from February to June 1999. The main objective was to provide factual documentation on the extent and nature of human impacts on Mt. Kenya forests. The report triggered major policy responses at the national level.

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Changes in the State of conservation of Mt. KenyaFollowing the 1999 aerial survey, the entire forest belt of Mt. Kenya were gazetted as National Reserve and placed under the management of Kenya Wildlife Service. In 2002, a new study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of the new management practices put in place since 2000. The study report revealed significant improvement in the state of conservation of the forests.



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Changes in the State of conservation of Mt. KenyaMt. Kilimanjaro

Aerial survey of forests. At the request of UNDP, UNEP, Kenya Wildlife Service, University of Bayreuth and the Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania, have undertook an aerial survey of the threats to Mt. Kilimanjaro forests in August-September 2001. The report was launched in June 2002 by the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism.

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Mt. Kilimanjaro Ice Cap Vanishing icecap of Kilimanjaro. During the 2001 survey of Mt. Kilimanjaro forests, UNEP and KWS assessed changes in the glaciers of the top of Africa. Over the last 38 years some 55 percent of the glacier area has disappeared.

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Mt. Kilimanjaro Ice Cap Shrinking forests of Kilimanjaro. A recent study based on satellite imagery carried out by the University of Bayreuth with support of UNEP revealed major changes in the upper forest zone of Kilimanjaro between 1976 and 2000 due to recurrent fires.

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Mau Complex


The Mau Complex is the largest closed-canopy forest area in Kenya. These forests cover over 400,000 ha, as large those of Mt. Kenya and the Aberdares combined. The Mau Complex comprises 13 forest reserves/trust land forest. With key partners, UNEP is carrying out assessment and advocacy activities on the entire Mau Complex, in particular on the three most affected forest reserves/trust land forest.

Mau Complex Under SiegeMau Complex in crisis. In collaboration with the Kenya Wildlife Service, Kenya Forests Working Group and the Ewaso Ngiro South Development Authority, UNEP is monitoring changes in the forest cover in the Mau Complex and assessing the negative impacts of these changes on key economic sectors and on the livelihoods of million of people.
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Maasai Mau Forest Status ReportMaasai Mau forest. In collaboration with the Kenya Forests Working Group, the Ewaso Ngiro South Development Authority and the Kenya Wildlife Service, UNEP has assessed and monitored changes in the forest cover in and around Maasai Mau and helped trigger major conservation measures by the central government and the local authorities.



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Maasai Mau Forest Status ReportEastern Mau and South West Mau. In collaboration with the Kenya Forests Working Group and the Department of Resource Surveys and Remote Sensing, UNEP carried out an aerial point sampling of these two forests in order to assess the extent of settlements in the forests and estimate the remaining forest cover towards the design and implementation of remedial actions.
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