Regions and network

UNEPGEFUniversity of Kalmar
Subregion 46: Somali Coastal Current

Focal Point Co-ordinators
Dr. Renison K. Ruwa
Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute
P.O. Box 81651
Dr Renison Ruwa

  • Major intergovernmental agreements and actors
  • Action programmes, strategies, and research
  • State of the regional environment
  • GEF Projects in the region
  • Other actors and initiatives
  • GIWA Subregional Task Team

    Major intergovernmental agreements and actors

    Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Eastern African Region
    The objective of the Nairobi Convention, which was adopted in 1985 and came into force in 1996
    , is to protect and manage the marine environment and coastal areas of the Eastern African region. The Contracting Parties commit themselves to take all appropriate measures to prevent, reduce and combat pollution of the Convention area, particularly pollution from ships, dumping, land-based sources, exploration and exploitation of the sea bed, and airborne pollution. They also agree to protect and preserve rare or fragile ecosystems as well as the habitat of depleted, threatened or endangered species and other marine life in specially protected areas. Furthermore, Parties agree to cooperate in dealing with pollution emergencies in the Convention area.

    Agreement for the Establishment of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission
    See also the Agreement (adopted in 1993, in force in 1996) as a pdf file. The objective of the Commission (IOTC) is to promote cooperation among its Members with a view to ensuring, through appropriate management, the conservation and optimum utilisation of stocks covered by this Agreement and encouraging sustainable development of fisheries based on such stocks.

    Secretariat for Eastern African Coastal Area Management, SEACAM
    The objective of SEACAM is to assist the Eastern African coastal countries to implement and coordinate coastal management activities following up on the 1993 Arusha Resolution and the 1996 Seychelles Statement on Integrated Coastal Zone Management. The SECAM Work Programme includes a number of priority areas: Capacity building, particularly of local NGOs; Database of CZM programs, projects and activities; and institutions and individuals; Environmental assessment of coastal aquaculture and coastal tourism; Public sector management; and Sustainable financing of coastal management programs.

    Organisation of African Unity, OAU
    The Organization of African Unity was established in 1963, and the Charter of the Organization was signed on that occasion by Heads of State and Government of 32 independent African States. Its purposes are to promote the unity and solidarity of the African States; defend the sovereignty of members; eradicate all forms of colonialism; promote international cooperation having due regard for the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; coordinate and harmonize Member States economic, diplomatic, educational, health, welfare, scientific and defense policies. Issues like Research, Planning, Statistics & Population; Trade, Finance, Customs & Tourism; Agriculture & Rural Development; Transport & Communications; Co-operation & Integration; Industry, Energy & Mineral Resources, fall under the organisation's Economic Cooperation and Development Department.

    UN Economic Commission for Africa, ECA
    On the UN ECA site of the one finds News from Around Africa; Meetings & Events on Africa; Archives of ECA Activities; IT for Development; Nexus Issues; Empowering Women; Policy Analysis; Statistical Activities;Development Management; Governance; Regional Integration; Library and Publications; Reports of Conferences; Subregional Offices; and Special Initiative on Africa.

    IOC Regional Committee for the Co-operative Investigation in the North and Central Western Indian Ocean, IOCINCWIO
    A regional subsidiary body of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO. The IOC's regional subsidiary bodies are responsible for the promotion, development and co-ordination of the Commission's marine scientific research programmes, the ocean services, and related activities, including TEMA (training, education and mutual assistance), in their respective regions. In establishing their programmes, they take into account the specific interests and needs of the member States in the region.

    Financial institutions

    African Development Bank
    The ADB is the premier financial development institution of Africa, dedicated to combating poverty and improving the lives of people of the continent and engaged in the task of mobilising resources towards the economic and social progress of its Regional Member Countries. The bank's Environment and Sustainable Development Unit "is the focal point for addressing and integrating the cross-cutting themes of environment, population, gender, poverty reduction, NGO relations/local participation, and institutional development into the bank's operations." The bank's environmental guidelines include coastal and marine resource management, and fisheries. See also the bank's country environmental profiles for its members.


    Action programmes, strategies and research

    Small Island Developing States Network
    The SIDSnet was initiated as a follow up to the Barbados Programme of Action from 1994. It was recognised that all islands share common issues and SIDSnet was initiated with UNDP Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) and the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). At present, 41 small island developing States and territories are included in the monitoring of the progress in the implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action. These states and territories often work together through the AOSIS, which also includes some small low-lying coastal States. The General Assembly convened a Special Session on SIDS in 1999.

    UNEP Regional Seas Programme
    The Regional Seas Programme was initiated in 1974 as a global programme implemented through regional components. The Regional Seas Programme is UNEP's main framework in the field of the coastal and marine environment. It includes 14 regions and three partner seas, involves more than 140 coastal states, and focuses on sustainable development of coastal and marine areas. Each regional action plan is formulated according to the needs and priorities of the region as perceived by the Governments concerned. Regional conventions are in place for several areas. See a map of all regional seas, and go to more information on the Black Sea, Wider Caribbean, Mediterranean, East Asian Seas, South Asian Seas, Eastern Africa, Kuwait Region, North West Pacific, Red Sea And Gulf of Aden, South East Pacific, North East Pacific, South Pacific, Upper South West Atlantic, and West and Central Africa. The UNEP Regional Seas web site also contains information on What's at stake, Major threats, and Actions.


    State of the regional environment

    GEO 2000 State of the Environment: Africa

    Global Enviroment Outlook 2000. GEO is:

    • a global environmental assessment process, the GEO Process, that is cross-sectoral and participatory. It incorporates regional views and perceptions, and builds consensus on priority issues and actions through dialogue among policy-makers and scientists at regional and global levels.
    • GEO outputs, in printed and electronic formats, including the GEO Report series. This series makes periodic reviews of the state of the world's environment, and provides guidance for decision-making processes such as the formulation of environmental policies, action planning and resource allocation. Other outputs include technical reports, a web site and a publication for young people.

    GEF Projects in the region

    Projects under implementation

    World Bank - GEF - International Waters:
    Western Indian Ocean Islands Oil Spill Contingency Planning
    The project's objective is to protect the environmental integrity and globally significant biodiversity of a large, biologically rich and relatively pristine part of the Western Indian Ocean from the risks and consequences of oil spills, particularly major spills. It will achieve this by helping the small island states of Comoros, Mauritius, Madagascar and Seychelles comply with the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation (OPRC). The project's specific objectives are to: (a) establish the legal and institutional frameworks in each country that are needed for them to comply with the relevant international marine pollution conventions, including the OPRC; (b) prepare and test both national and regional oil spill contingency plans; (c) develop appropriate national and regional oil spill response capacity; and (d) establish a sustainable financing mechanism and public/private sector collaborative arrangements for oil spill response

    World Bank - GEF - Biodiversity:
    Biodiversity Conservation and Marine Pollution Abatement, Seychelles
    Biodiversity conservation component comprises: (a) the restoration and preservation of the ecosystem of Aldabra Atoll by strengthening conservation management and scientific research and control of feral goats; and (b) a protection program for the Green and Hawksbill Turtles. Marine pollution component covers the analysis of the steps needed to comply with MARPOL standards for ship waste treatment and actions required to control pollution from commercial shipping, fishing and leisure craft.

    World Bank - GEF - Biodiversity:
    Management of Avian Ecosystems
    The project will assist Seychelles to improve the conservation status of threatened endemic birds, their ecosystem and associated biodiversity through the establishment of a program of species and habitat restoration. Human impacts in Seychelles, as in other island ecosystems, have led to the extinction of many endemic taxa and reduced much of the remaining taxa to endangered relict populations. This project will finance definition and initial implementation of action plans for upland forest, coastal wetlands, and coastal plateau forest habitats through action plans for seven threatened endemic bird taxa and recovery programs, socio-exonomic models for island restoration, assessment of potential islands for translocation of bird populations, restoration of one island, eradication of exotic species and habitat management plan for that island, public awareness and education campaigns, and monitoring and assessment. The project is likely to provide key lessons on habitat restoration, endangered/threatened species management, control of alien species and other issues of importance for threatened species management, control of alien species and other issues of importance for threatened island ecosystems throughout the world.

    Project concepts in the pipeline

    UNDP - GEF - Biodiversity:
    Development of Mnazy Bay Marine Park (Establishment of a Global, Representative System of Marine Protected Areas), Tanzania
    This GEF Project provides the additional funding for the development of a multi-purpose Marine Protected Area around the globally significant marine biodiversity values of the Mnazi Bay and Rovuma River estuary areas in southern Tanzania.

    UNEP - GEF - International waters:
    Preparation of a Transboundry Diagnostic Analysis and a Strategic Action Programme for the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Western Indian Ocean
    The overall objective of this project is to prepare a transboundary diagnostic analysis and the framework elements of a strategic action programme that builds upon and complements the institutional and programmatic framework put in place.


    Other actors, initiatives and resources

    African Water Page
    The main objective of the African Water Page, published by Water Policy International, is "to increase communication on the Continent of Africa between people working in water. However, the level of connectivity to the Internet is very low. With other forms of communication being a difficulty, the Internet adds enormous potential to data accessibility for professionals, particularly those working in Government service. Not only is data more accessible, but with email, News Groups and the WWW communication between sector professionals can also be enhanced. There is a distinct sense of isolation of people working, sometimes against daunting odds, in countries all around Africa. As the African Water Page develops, one of the objectives is to encourage African professionals to become members of a closed forum for the sharing of information and support, and to promote frank discussion about some of the difficulties facing African professionals".

    International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management, ICLARM
    An international research organization "devoted to improving the productivity, management and conservation of aquatic resources for the benefit of users and consumers in developing countries". ICLARM is one of the research centres of CGIAR, Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.
    See, for example, Caribbean Marine Protected Areas Project: The Role of Marine Protected Areas in Fisheries Management and Biodiversity Conservation in Coral Reef Ecosystems. ICLARM, in collaboration with the the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and other partners, and with support from the European Commission, has also developed FishBase, a global information system on fishes for research scientists, fisheries managers, zoologists and many more. FishBase contains full information on 23,500 species. Furthermore, ICLARM has developed similar systems on coral reefs and their resources (ReefBase) and management of fish stocks in Asia (TrawlBase).

    International Coral Reef Initiative, ICRI
    An environmental partnership that brings stakeholders together with the objective of sustainable use and conservation of coral reefs for future generations. ICRI is an informal mechanism that allows representatives of over 80 developing countries with coral reefs to sit in equal partnership with major donor countries and development banks, international environmental and development agencies, scientific associations, the private sector and NGOs to decide on the best strategies to conserve the world's coral reef resources.

    Coral Health and Monitoring Programme, NOOA
    The mission of the NOOA Coral Health and Monitoring Program is to provide services to help improve and sustain coral reef health throughout the world. Long term goals:Establish an international network of coral reef researchers for the purpose of sharing knowledge and information on coral health and monitoring.Provide near real-time data products derived from satellite images and monitoring stations at coral reef areas. Provide a data repository for historical data collected from coral reef areas. Add to the general fund of coral reef knowledge.See also Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, GCRMN.

    The Somali Coastal Current - a Large Marine Ecosystem (LME)
    A Large Marine Ecosystem, LME, is a "region of ocean space encompassing coastal areas from river basins and estuaries to the seaward boundary of continental shelves and the seaward margins of coastal current systems. It is a relatively large region characterized by distinct bathymetry, hydrography, productivity, and trophically dependent populations." See also Rhode Island University map of LMEs.


    GIWA Subregional Task Team

    Name Address and contact Expertise
    Dr. David Obura The CORDIO Project
    P. O. Box 10135
    Marine Ecologist Coordinator-the CORDIO Project
    Ms Edith Mussukuya GIWA
    391 82 Kalmar
    Freshwater Resource Expert, GIWA Co-ordinator for Sub-Saharan Africa Mega-region
    Dr. Peter S. Otiato Nairobi City Council
    Special Treatment Centre
    P. O. 3683 - 00502
    Medical Officer
    Abdilrahman J. Kulmilye University of Nairobi
    P. O. 30197, UoN
    Fisheries Expert
    Melckzedeck K. W. Osore KMFRI
    P. O. Box 81651
    Marine Ecologist
    Jacob Ochiewo KMFRI
    P. O. Box 81651
    Dr. Jude Peter Shunula Institute of Marine Science
    University of Dar-es-Salaam
    P. O. Box 668
    Biologist (Senior Research Fellow)
    David Mutoro Bungoma Rural Resources Programme
    P. O. Box 2392
    Saeed Mwaguni Coast Development Authority
    P. O. Box 1322
    Environmental Chemist
    Dr. Renison K. Ruwa KMFRI
    P. O. Box 81651
    Marine Ecologist
    Team Leader for Somali Coastal Current
    Dr.Oguntola J. Akinbola Lake Chad Basin Commission
    B.P. 727
    Team Leader for Lake Chad
    Prof. Mhammed Tayaa Institut Agronomie & Veterinaire Hassan II
    B P 6202
    Team Leader Canary Current

  • Global International Waters Assessment, GIWA
    SE- 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden
    Phone: +46- 480 44 60 00. Fax: +46- 480 44 73 55.

    page last modified on 22 August 2006