Regions and network

UNEPGEFUniversity of Kalmar
Subregion 65: Eastern Equatorial Pacific

  • Major intergovernmental agreements and actors
  • Action programmes, strategies, and research
  • State of the regional environment
  • GEF Projects in the region
  • Other actors and initiatives

    Major intergovernmental agreements and actors

    Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and Coastal Area of the South-East Pacific
    The Lima Convention was adopted 1981 and came into in force in 1986. Its objective is to protect the marine environment and coastal zones of the South-East Pacific within the 200-mile area of maritime sovereignty and jurisdiction of the Parties, and beyond that area, the high seas up to a distance within which pollution of the high seas may affect that area. The Contracting Parties agree, inter alia, to take all necessary measures to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the Convention area, particularly pollution from land-based sources, from or through the atmosphere, from vessels and from any other installations and devices operating in the marine environment. The Convention has six protocols:

    Permanent Commission of the South Pacific, CPPS
    The Commission — Comisión Permanente del Pacífico Sur, CPPS — serves as the Secretariat of the Lima Convention and the
    South-East Pacific Action Plan (published here only in Spanish).

    Convention for the Establishment of an Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission
    The Convention, which was adopted in 1949 and came into force in 1950, deals with yellowfin and skipjack tuna (and other species taken by tuna fishing boats) in the East Pacific Ocean. The Convention provides for investigation into population, biology and ecology of yellowfin and skipjack tuna and species used as bait ; and into effects of natural and human impacts on those species. It also provides for analysis of information regarding population trends; studies of fishing methods and methods of maintaining and increasing populations; control over taking ; joint action to ensure maximum sustained catch ; compilation of catch statistics; publication of reports and scientific, statistical and other data. The principal duties of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission are to study the biology of the tunas and related species of the Eastern Pacific Ocean, with a view to determining the effects that fishing and natural factors have on their abundance, and to recommend appropriate conservation measures so that the stocks of fish can be maintained at levels which will afford maximum sustainable catches. In 1976 the Commission's duties were broadened to include work on the problems arising from the tuna-dolphin relationship in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. It was decided that the Commission should strive to maintain a high level of tuna production and also to maintain porpoise stocks at or above levels that ensure their survival in perpetuity with every reasonable effort being made to avoid needless or careless killing of porpoise.

    Eastern Pacific Ocean Tuna Fishing Agreement
    The Agreement of 1984 applies to certain highly migratory species of tuna and tuna related fish in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Provides for the establishment of a Council entrusted with the task of implementing the agreement. Provides for the issuance of international licences authorizing holders to fish for the species covered by the Agreement in the Agreement Area including the EEZ of states which are parties thereto (coastal states of the eastern Pacific Ocean or members of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission). The 12-mile territorial sea is, however, outside the Agreement Area. The Agreement empowers the Council to make recommendations to parties concerning tuna resources but not until all States that fish for tuna in the area have acceded to the agreement.

    UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, ECLAC
    The site of UN ECLAC comprises News; Publications; Main Studies; ECLAC Series; Research and Studies; Statistics; Projects; Library; Events; Work Programme; as well as ECLAC Headlines and Latest News.

    Organisation of American States, OAS
    OAS Water Resources Programme: In conformity with the mandates of OAS member states, the Unit for Sustainable Development and Environment (USDE) is engaged in several projects on transboundary water resource management in partnership with UNEP, the World Bank, the Global Environment Facility (GEF), and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) in major river basin of South and Central America. The Unit is the secretariat for the Inter-American Water Resources Network (IWRN) - see below - and serves on the Board of Governors of the World Water Council. USDE is also collaborating with the Pan American Health Organization to organize inter-American conference on the link between water and health.

    UNEP Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, ROLAC
    See for example
    Forum of Environmental Ministers for Latin America and the Caribbean (only in Spanish).

    Financial institutions

    Inter-American Development Bank, IADB
    The Inter-American Development Bank, the oldest and largest regional multilateral development institution, was established in December of 1959 to help accelerate economic and social development in Latin America and the Caribbean.



    Action programmes, strategies and research

    UNEP Regional Seas Programme
    The Regional Seas Programme was initiated in 1974 as a global programme implemented through regional components. The Regional Seas Programme is UNEP's main framework in the field of the coastal and marine environment. It includes 14 regions and three partner seas, involves more than 140 coastal states, and focuses on sustainable development of coastal and marine areas. Each regional action plan is formulated according to the needs and priorities of the region as perceived by the Governments concerned. Regional conventions are in place for several areas. See a map of all regional seas, and go to more information on the Black Sea, Wider Caribbean, Mediterranean, East Asian Seas, South Asian Seas, Eastern Africa, Kuwait Region, North West Pacific, Red Sea And Gulf of Aden, South East Pacific, North East Pacific, South Pacific, Upper South West Atlantic, and West and Central Africa. The UNEP Regional Seas web site also contains information on What's at stake, Major threats, and Actions.


    State of the regional environment

    GEO 2000 State of the Environment: Latin America and the Caribbean

    Global Enviroment Outlook 2000. GEO is:

    • a global environmental assessment process, the GEO Process, that is cross-sectoral and participatory. It incorporates regional views and perceptions, and builds consensus on priority issues and actions through dialogue among policy-makers and scientists at regional and global levels.
    • GEO outputs, in printed and electronic formats, including the GEO Report series. This series makes periodic reviews of the state of the world's environment, and provides guidance for decision-making processes such as the formulation of environmental policies, action planning and resource allocation. Other outputs include technical reports, a web site and a publication for young people.

    GEF Projects in the region

    Projects under implementation

    World Bank - GEF - Biodiversity:
    Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in the Western Slope of the Serrania del Baudo, Colombia
    The objective of the project is the development of a strategy for the sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity with the participation of local communities and administrations. The project supports dialogue and lays the basis for a more environmentally grounded development plan for the region given that the recently proposed development programs for the region have presented conceptual and methodological differences in approach with respect to the cultural systems of its inhabitants and to their relationship with the natural environment.

    World Bank - GEF - Biodiversity:
    Monitoring System for the Galapagos Islands
    The purpose of the project is to establish a monitoring system to measure the well-being of the ecosystems of the Galapagos Islands.

    World Bank - GEF - Biodiversity:
    Wetland Priorities for Conservation Action, Ecuador
    This GEF medium-size project will build upon the experience gained from the pilot phase to expand the identification, characterization, and prioritization to a national level, facilitating the establishment of regional workgroups that will act according to local realities and with the support of the generated information. The project will also promote the importance of wetlands among environmental and decision-making groups. The objective of this project is to promote and support the conservation of wetlands in Ecuador through their accurate identification, characterization, and priorization. The Project will contribute to the maintenance of global biodiversity by producing technical data for a National Wetlands Conservation Action Plan which will be the basis for future government action. It will also help increase the number of Ecuadorian wetlands in the list of Wetlands of International Importance.


    Other actors, initiatives and resources

    International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management, ICLARM
    An international research organization "devoted to improving the productivity, management and conservation of aquatic resources for the benefit of users and consumers in developing countries". ICLARM is one of the research centres of CGIAR, Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.
    See, for example, Caribbean Marine Protected Areas Project: The Role of Marine Protected Areas in Fisheries Management and Biodiversity Conservation in Coral Reef Ecosystems. ICLARM, in collaboration with the the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and other partners, and with support from the European Commission, has also developed FishBase, a global information system on fishes for research scientists, fisheries managers, zoologists and many more. FishBase contains full information on 23,500 species. Furthermore, ICLARM has developed similar systems on coral reefs and their resources (ReefBase) and management of fish stocks in Asia (TrawlBase).

    International Coral Reef Initiative, ICRI
    An environmental partnership that brings stakeholders together with the objective of sustainable use and conservation of coral reefs for future generations. ICRI is an informal mechanism that allows representatives of over 80 developing countries with coral reefs to sit in equal partnership with major donor countries and development banks, international environmental and development agencies, scientific associations, the private sector and NGOs to decide on the best strategies to conserve the world's coral reef resources.

    Coral Health and Monitoring Programme, NOOA
    The mission of the NOOA Coral Health and Monitoring Program is to provide services to help improve and sustain coral reef health throughout the world. Long term goals:Establish an international network of coral reef researchers for the purpose of sharing knowledge and information on coral health and monitoring.Provide near real-time data products derived from satellite images and monitoring stations at coral reef areas. Provide a data repository for historical data collected from coral reef areas. Add to the general fund of coral reef knowledge.See also Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, GCRMN.

    Pacific Central American Coastal - a Large Marine Ecosystem (LME)
    A Large Marine Ecosystem, LME, is a "region of ocean space encompassing coastal areas from river basins and estuaries to the seaward boundary of continental shelves and the seaward margins of coastal current systems. It is a relatively large region characterized by distinct bathymetry, hydrography, productivity, and trophically dependent populations." See also Rhode Island University map of LMEs.


  • Global International Waters Assessment, GIWA
    SE- 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden
    Phone: +46- 480 44 60 00. Fax: +46- 480 44 73 55.

    page last modified on 22 August 2006