Water issues

UNEPGEFUniversity of Kalmar
Causal chains and key issues

Causal chain analyses will be an essential tool used to identify and better understand the causal chains between perceived problems and their societal root causes.

The GIWA causal chain analyses will cluster into five major problem areas of concern for the aquatic environment. Initially, 22 issues have been identified. The conditions in each area will determine which issues that will be considered relevant to address in that particular area:

Freshwater shortage

  • Modification of stream flow
  • Pollution of existing supplies
  • Changes in the water table


  • Microbiological
  • Eutrophication
  • Chemical
  • Suspended solids
  • Solid wastes
  • Thermal
  • Radio nuclide
  • Spills

Habitat and community modification

  • Loss of ecosystems
  • Modification of ecosystems or ecotones, including community structure and/or species composition

Unsustainable exploitation of fisheries and other living resources

  • Over-exploitation
  • Excessive by-catch and discards
  • Destructive fishing practices
  • Decreased viability of stock through pollution and disease
  • Impact on biological and genetic diversity

Global change

  • Changes in hydrological cycle
  • Sea level change
  • Increased uv-b radiation as a result of ozone depletion
  • Changes in ocean CO2 source/sink function

Global International Waters Assessment, GIWA
SE- 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden
Phone: +46- 480 44 60 00. Fax: +46- 480 44 73 55.
E-mail: info@giwa.net

page last modified on 22 August 2006