UNEPGEFUniversity of Kalmar
Baltic Sea – GIWA Regional assessment 17

Download  File size: 8 Mb
Name of Publication:
Global International Waters Assessment
Baltic Sea, GIWA Regional assessment 17
University of Kalmar on behalf of United Nations Environment Programme
Publication date
February, 2005
Lääne, A., Kraav, E., and G. Titova
Available formats
Hard copy (paperback), Electronically (PDF)
This report presents the GIWA assessment of the Baltic Sea region, one of the largest brackish water areas in the world. It is a semi-enclosed sea, which together with other physical as well as socio-economic characteristics makes it very sensitive to anthropogenic pressures. Eutrophication remains the most pressing problem in the region, as nitrogen and phosphorus inputs are still too high, despite considerable efforts to reduce discharges. The issue of overexploitation of fish is also considered as a severe problem, mainly due to the overutilisation of fishing quotas, high exploitation rate and oversized fleet capacity. The past and present status and future prospects of these issues are discussed, and they are traced back to their root causes. Policy options to mitigate these problems are proposed, which are closely connected to the basic principles of the Helsinki Convention and EU Water Framework Directive to cater for a harmonised implementation of water protection measures in the Baltic Sea States.

PDF  Download Download the full report. File size: 8 Mb

Download individual chapters: 
Front cover (201 Kb)
Contents (59 Kb)
Preface (24 Kb)
Executive summary (34 Kb)
Acknowledgements (20 Kb)
Abbreviations and acronyms (39 Kb)
Regional definition (1 870 Kb)
Assessment (3 491 Kb)
Causal chain analysis (683 Kb)
Policy options (219 Kb)
Conclusions and recommendations (29 Kb)
References (57 Kb)
Annexes (82 Kb)
Global International Waters Assessment (611 Kb)
GIWA Methodology (195 Kb)
Back cover (798 Kb)

Global International Waters Assessment, GIWA
SE- 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden
Phone: +46- 480 44 60 00. Fax: +46- 480 44 73 55.

page last modified on 22 August 2006