Makiko Yashiro
Makiko Yashiro
Topic: Policy Tools for Biodiversity Management and Sustainable Use
Makiko Yashiro works as a Programme Officer at UNEP's Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (ROAP). Working closely with the secretariats of various biodiversity-related Conventions and regional in...
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Number of questions: [1]
Posted on 20/10/2014 14:53:56
Hi Makiko

I have 3 questions:

1. Are there other policy tools besides PES that have been successful in biodiversity management?
2. If so, where have these been implemented and what level of success have they achieved?
3. With policy tools for biodiversity management slow to develop, would it be more prudent for businesses to take the lead with public policy to follow, building on successful private strategies?

Kind Regards
Derrek Clarke (from United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)
Thank you for your question. Policy tools in general could include frameworks, methodologies and models that can be used to inform policy-making and the appraisal of policy instruments. Such tools, for example, could include spatial planning used for analyzing the spatial requirements of different land uses, as well as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), which have also been widely used in assessing the environmental impacts of planned activities (in case of EIA), plans, programmes or policies (in case of SEA). There are other tools like Cost-Benefit Analysis and Multi-Criteria Analysis, which have also been used in assessing and comparing economic and financial trade-offs, as well as establishing preferences between alternative options. Currently, with funding from China, UNEP is collaborating with partners in implementing a project which focuses partly on compiling the experiences and lessons learned from the ASEAN region and China in applying policy tools in biodiversity conservation. The report will be completed towards the end of the year and will be made available at our website:

I fully agree with you on the essential role to be played by the private sector in biodiversity and ecosystem management, and in fact, the private sector is increasingly aware of the need for integrating environmental considerations into their business models, decisions, sourcing and production methods. The CBDs initiative on Global Platform on Business and Biodiversity provides case studies of the private sector in taking innovative steps in addressing biodiversity-related issues and considerations into their operations ( Increasing investments towards new markets and business opportunities linked to environmental changes is a major challenge that we need to address. UNEP has been addressing the challenge of accelerating green financing, including through UNEPs Finance Initiative, which is a coalition of banks and insurance companies committed to sustainability ( While recognizing this pivotal role of the private sector in spearheading efforts towards biodiversity conservation, I would also like to highlight the role of the public sector in terms of creating enabling environment, for example through the establishment of regulatory frameworks and providing appropriate incentives.