The events referred to above confirmed that environmental issues are
systemic and addressing them requires long-term strategies, integrated
action and the participation of all countries and all members of society.
This was reflected in the World Conservation Strategy (WCS), one of the
seminal documents which served to redefine environmentalism post-Stockholm.
Launched in 1980 by IUCN, the strategy recognized that addressing environmental
problems calls for long-term effort and the integration of environmental
and development objectives.
'This is a kind of development that provides real improvements
in the quality of human life and at the same time conserves the
vitality and diversity of the Earth. The goal is development that
will be sustainable. Today it may seem visionary but it is attainable.
To more and more people it also appears our only rational option.'
- World Conservation Strategy, IUCN, UNEP and
The WCS envisaged governments in different parts of the world undertaking
their own national conservation strategies, meeting one of the objectives
of Stockholm to incorporate environment in development planning. Since
1980, more than 75 countries have initiated multi-sector strategies at
national, provincial, state and local levels (Lopez Ornat 1996). These
are aimed at addressing environmental problems such as land degradation,
habitat conversion and loss, deforestation, water pollution and poverty.
| World Charter for Nature: general
- The genetic viability on the earth shall not be compromised;
the population levels of all life forms, wild and domesticated,
must be at least sufficient for their survival, and to this end
necessary habitat shall be safeguarded.
- All areas of the earth, both land and sea, shall be subject
to these principles of conservation; special protection shall
be given to unique areas, to representative samples of all the
different types of ecosystems and to the habitat of rare or endangered
- Ecosystems and organisms, as well as the land, marine and atmospheric
resources that are utilized by man [sic], shall be managed to
achieve and maintain optimum sustainable productivity, but not
in such a way as to endanger the integrity of those other ecosystems
or species with which they co-exist.
- Nature shall be secured against degradation caused by warfare
or other hostile activities.
| Source: UN 1982