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Global Outlook for Ice and Snow
Selected High Resolution Graphics
Overview
Some key facts about the component of the cryosphere.
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Geographical distribution of the components of the cryosphere.
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Timeline: glaciations, temperature variation and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration over the last 400,000 years.
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Chapter 3: Why are Ice and Snow Changing?
Figure 3.3: Increases in annual temperatures for a recent five-year period relative to 1951–1980. Warming is widespread, generally greater over land than over oceans, and greatest at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere.
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Figure 3.5(a): 20th century Arctic land temperatures: results from IPCC models
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Figure 3.5(b): 21st century Arctic land temperatures: results from IPCC models
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Chapter 4: Snow
Annual maximum snow cover extent in both hemispheres
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Figure 4.3: Northern Hemisphere snow-covered area (SCA) for the spring (March–April) from 1922–2005.
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Figure 4.4: Trend (days/year) in spring (February–July) snow-cover duration from 1970–2004.
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Figure 4.6: Percent change in monthly maximum snow water equivalent (SWE) between 1981–2000 and 2080–2100.
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Chapter 5: Ice in the Sea
Annual maximum sea ice extent in both hemispheres
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Figure 5.3: Maps of average sea-ice extent in the Arctic summer (September) and winter (March), and in the Antarctic summer (February) and winter (September).
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Figure 5.5: Regional changes in Arctic annual mean sea-ice extent (% per decade) for the period 1979–2004.
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Figure 5.7: Change in the age of ice on the Arctic Ocean, comparing September ice ages in 1988, 1990, 2001 and 2005.
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Figure 5.8: Regional changes in Antarctic annual mean sea-ice extent (% per decade) for the period 1979–2004.
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Figure 5.9: Sea-ice concentration change over the 21st century as projected by climate models.
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Figure 5.11a: Albedos of basic thick sea-ice surface types.
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Figure 5.11b: Schematic illustrating the ice–albedo feedback.
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Figure 5.18: The Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage compared with currently used shipping routes.
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Chapter 6A: Ice Sheets
Geographical distribution of ice sheets
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Figure 6A.3: Antarctica, showing rates of surface-elevation change derived from satellite radar-altimeter measurements.
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Figure 6A.5: Greenland, showing rates of surface-elevation change between the late 1990s and 2003, derived by comparing satellite and aircraft laser-altimeter surveys.
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Chapter 6B: Glaciers and Ice Caps
Geographical distribution of glaciers and ice caps
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Figure 6B.5: Worldwide glacier monitoring.
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Figure 6B.6: Mass balance reference glaciers in nine mountain ranges.
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Figure 6B.11: Overview of world glaciers and ice caps. (a) Glaciers and ice caps around the world. The total area of glaciers and ice caps, without the ice sheets and surrounding glaciers and ice caps in Greenland and Antarctica, sums up to 540 000 km2.
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Figure 6B.12: Glacier shrinking on Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island, Canadian Arctic.
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Figure 6B.15: Shrinking of Fedchenko Glacier in the Pamirs of Tajikistan. The debris-covered glacier tongue retreated by more than 1 km since 1933 and lowered by about 50 m since 1980.
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Figure 6B.19: Glacier changes on Nevado de Santa Isabel, Colombia. This inactive volcano lost about 87 per cent of its ice cover between 1850 and 2002.
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Figure 6B.20: Shrinking Lewis Glacier, Mount Kenya. This tropical glacier retreated by more than 800 m between 1893 and 2004 and lost almost 16 m water equivalent of its thickness between 1979 and 1996.
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Figure 6B.21: Melting ice on Mount Kilimanjaro, East Africa. The graph shows the drastic reduction of the ice cover since the first observations in 1880, based on historical maps, aerial photographs and satellite images.
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Chapter 6C: Ice and Sea-level Change
Figure 6C.3: Global averaged sea levels from 1870 to 2006 as inferred from tide-gauge data (white line, with 66% and 95% confidence limits given in dark and light shading) and satellite altimeter data (red line).
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Figure 6C.7: Average Recurrence Interval for sea-level events of a given height at Sydney, Australia.
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Figure 6C.12: Estimates of people flooded in coastal areas in the 2080s as a result of sea-level rise and for given socio-economic scenarios and protection responses.
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Chapter 7: Frozen Ground
Permafrost extent (in the Arctic and Antarctica, the permafrost extent is shown only within the exposed land areas)
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Figure 7.1. Permafrost extent in the Northern Hemisphere.
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Figure 7.2: Changes in permafrost temperatures during the last 23 to 28 years in northern Alaska.
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Figure 7.3: Ground temperatures at depths of 10 or 12 m between 1984 and 2006 in the central (Norman Wells and Wrigley) and southern (Fort Simpson and Northern Alberta) Mackenzie Valley, showing increases of up to 0.3°C per decade.
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Figure 7.4: Modelled permafrost temperatures (mean annual temperature at the permafrost surface) for the Northern Hemisphere.
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Chapter 8: River and Lake Ice
Figure 8.1: Time series of freeze-up and break-up dates from selected Northern Hemisphere lakes and rivers (1846–1995).
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Figure 8.2: Trends in spring temperatures and in ice break-up dates in Canada.
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Figure 8.4: Average projected changes in cold-season mean temperatures over Arctic land regions.
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Figure 8.9: Ice-jam floods provide water and nutrients to maintain delta ponds.
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Chapter 9: Policy and Perspectives
Figure 9.1: Growth in tourism in Antarctica
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