Chad

Submitted by Chemical Substances Focal Point

(Note: The Chemical Substances Focal Point did not prioritize areas of capacity-building for hazardous waste, waste agricultural biomass and healthcare waste)

Summary of information
Highest priority waste streams
1. Municipal solid waste (MSW)
2. Healthcare waste
3. Waste plastics
Highest priority areas of capacity building
1. Social
2. Institutional
3. Financial
Narrative summary
Chad (Chemical Substances Focal Point)’s responses to the needs assessment survey suggest that waste management activities exist to a partial extent in the country. Some waste streams such as MSW are addressed by policies and institutions; some such as waste plastics are partially addressed; others such as e-waste are not given attention at all. In general, capacities need to be built in terms of public awareness of laws and waste management practices, while financial investment is also necessary. As a heavily agricultural country, Chad needs to make use of its organic waste and WAB potential, as well as develop a long-term strategy for managing growing industrial waste.

Municipal solid waste (MSW)
Chad’s responses rank MSW as the highest-priority waste stream in which capacity-building is needed. Funds are seen as the greatest necessity for better MSW management, especially to urban municipalities. Grants are needed in order to procurement equipment and to build infrastructure, such as waste segregation centres and landfills, especially as only collection and transportation equipment is well-maintained. Improved public participation in MSW management is also highly important, although there are a few organized efforts to involve society. Fee payments for the removal of household waste need to be enforced, while waste management laws need to be better publicized. However, governmental institutions need to be equipped not only with law and payment enforcement capacities, but also with a better understanding of waste management as a whole. In particular, an understanding not only of waste but also of other phases in the life cycle of products needs to be developed.

Healthcare waste
Healthcare waste management is also ranked as a great priority for Chad. A waste management framework covers healthcare waste, but elaboration, clarification and better publicity of legal texts is needed for the waste stream. The healthcare sector, in particular, is not completely aware of the hazards of mismanaged healthcare waste. Awareness and communication activities are thus needed. The responses also suggest that technical capacity is an area where improvement is greatly needed, given that much healthcare waste management equipment in Chad is substandard. Financial investment is desperately needed for the purchase of new equipment for healthcare waste collection, transportation, incineration and landfilling, while understanding of the methods of using equipment should also be improved.

Waste plastics
Waste plastics are ranked as a high priority waste stream for better management in Chad. Although there are regulations on non-biodegradable plastic bags, waste plastics as a whole are not specifically addressed by law. More importantly, however, laws need to be better publicized to all levels of society. At present, the regulations on plastic bags are only enforced in the capital, and the hazards of waste plastics are only partially understood. Research has been conducted to find a solution to the generation of waste plastics in the country, and continued investigation will be needed. Recycling is seen as a solution, but the sector lacks infrastructure and financial investment.

E-waste
In Chad, there are no laws or regulations that specifically cover e-waste, and no financial investment has been provided to address the waste stream. The country’s responses suggest that it is above all important to restructure and better equip governmental institutions so that attention is given to e-waste. The responses also state that the majority of the population only has a very vague conception of the waste stream itself, and most importantly, its effect on human and environmental health. Public awareness needs to be raised, especially among target groups who come into regular contact with e-waste.

Hazardous waste
A framework laws and decrees on hazardous waste exist in Chad. However, there is firstly a need to harmonize this framework with international law, and secondly a need to build enforcement capacities in the country. Regulations on hazardous waste management have not been widely publicized, and good waste management practice is rare. There is only a general, theoretical knowledge on the issues of hazardous waste among responsible institutions, while among the public there is only a vague conception of the existence of the waste stream. There is therefore a need to strengthen understanding and involvement on both the institutional and social levels.

Industrial waste
Chad has not been an industrial country in the past. However, as industrial activity is increasing, it is necessary to take measures to prepare sound institutional capacities for industrial waste management in the country. While institutions and a legal framework exist, strategies for enforcement and technical capacities must be strengthened, such as a programme to procure funds for specific waste collection equipment. It will be also necessary to build good waste management practices especially in the industrial sector.

Organic waste
Organic waste management has not been popularized in Chad. The understanding of segregation and the potential uses of organic waste needs to be strengthened, especially on the societal level, despite the existence of framework policies. More widespread segregation and use of organic waste would be greatly valuable in the country given the needs of agriculture and cattle feed. Financial investment will be needed to begin projects such as composting.

Waste agricultural biomass (WAB)
WAB management is not ranked as a high-priority waste stream in Chad. Little attention is given to the waste stream, as there are neither specific laws nor sufficient technical understanding of the uses of WAB. The agricultural sector is conscious of the benefits of WAB management, but is generally unenthusiastic. It is therefore necessary to popularize the segregation and use of the waste stream.