|MSW management is ranked as the highest priority waste stream in Guinea-Bissau. MSW management is regulated by municipal laws dating from the colonial era; regulations urgently need to be updated. More recent environmental laws are not enforced efficiently, partly due to a lack of economic capacity: funds are needed for the procurement of equipment for all types of MSW. The area of scientific and technical capacity thus also requires strengthening. Existing understanding of and equipment for fundamental waste management concepts such as collection, characterization, transportation and disposal is rudimentary and inadequate. Waste management is also linked to other areas of priority in Guinea-Bissau, such as high illiteracy rates preventing sound public awareness of environmental problems. Clarifying the roles of institutions such as the Mayor, the Ministries of Environment, Health, Social Infrastructure, Finance, as well as banks, would improve the efficiency of efforts.