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Indonesia

Submitted by BaliFokus/Indonesian Toxics-Free Network, Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of National Development Planning Agency/ National Development Planning Agency
  • Summary of information
  • Municipal solid waste (MSW)
  • Organic waste
  • Hazardous waste
  • Industrial waste
  • Healthcare waste
  • Waste plastics
  • E-waste
  • Waste agricultural biomass (WAB)
Summary of information
Highest priority waste streams
1. Municipal solid waste (MSW)
2. Organic waste
3. Hazardous and healthcare waste
Highest priority areas of capacity building
1. Policy and regulatory
2. Technical and scientific
3. Financial
Narrative summary
The answers of the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of National Development Planning Agency and the NGO BaliFokus suggest that Indonesia is equipped with a legal framework, which covers most waste streams but requires a more rigorous enforcement. Municipal solid waste, organic waste and hazardous and healthcare waste are ranked as high priority waste streams in Indonesia. In terms of capacity building, all waste streams require attention in the fields of regulation, financing and awareness raising. It is emphasized that the compliance with relevant international regulations and Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) as well as the adoption of life cycle management as an overarching principle of waste management policies are important elements in improving waste management in Indonesia. On the other hand, insufficient coordination among responsible institutions, the lack of law enforcement and low budget allocations are highlighted as some of the structural deficiencies in Indonesia’s waste management system. The answers to the survey indicate also that capacity building has a crucial role to play in enhancing human capacities in the areas of hazardous, industrial and healthcare waste streams. In this regard, the development and application of guidance materials on best-available-technologies (BAT) in these areas are of particular importance. Building up human capacities, in both the private and public sector, to establish and implement financial instruments, such as public private partnerships, is crucial to ensure the economic sustainability of waste management activities in Indonesia. Raising awareness among the public on both the risks and opportunities associated with waste is relevant for all waste streams.

Municipal solid waste (MSW)
Municipal solid waste is ranked as the highest priority waste stream in Indonesia. In the legislative field, a law on solid waste management has been enacted but is currently not well implemented and enforced at all governmental levels. Even though waste minimization and collection targets exist at the national level, they are loosely adopted within the policy frameworks of local governments. To improve the current state of low enforcement rates it will be necessary to build capacity at the local policy level to implement regulations and develop guidelines. In order to effectively support this process from an institutional side, it will be critical to strengthen the mechanisms to coordinate within and between relevant bodies at all governmental levels. A further priority area for capacity building lies in the field of finance. Elevated operational costs, limited budget allocations to waste management activities, high level of mismanagement and an almost absolute reliance on public funding sources constitute major financial hurdles for implementing a more effective waste management system in Indonesia. Making MSW a policy priority of local governments and developing more innovative financing mechanisms, such as public-private partnerships (PPP), will be fundamental in securing financing for MSW management. With regards to PPPs, the staff in local governments will need to thoroughly understand each party’s rights and responsibilities in managing waste through such a scheme. The process of strengthening financial and human resource capacities needs to go hand in hand with an improved technical and scientific understanding. Fully understanding and integrating concepts such as zero waste and life cycle management are as necessary as opting for the best available technologies (BAT) for handling and treating municipal waste. At the municipal level, waste handling and treatment facilities are often lacking and capacity building for choosing the most adequate technologies is needed. Raising public participation and awareness on waste minimization, at-source separation and recycling through education is highlighted as crucial in improving MSW management.

Organic waste
Dealing with organic waste constitutes another high priority area for Indonesia. While a law exists, thereis a lack of implementation of the regulations, resulting in poor enforcement and low compliance rates at national and local levels. Strengthening the coordination between departments and among all relevant stakeholders, through concrete cooperation plans and concepts, which include the complete cycle of production, treatment, marketing and usage of organic waste, will be crucial in enhancing performance in handling organic waste. The installation of incentive schemes is likely to increase compliance with the law and lead to win-win situations for both regulators and businesses. A comprehensive national waste management strategy in Indonesia is still in the process of being developed, but not implemented yet, which is reflected, among others, in the fact that clear waste minimization and composting targets as well as capacities to implement organic waste management are lacking. The topic of composting is partly being addressed at the household and community level, where a variety of composting projects is funded by local populations and supported by donors. However, in order to deal with organic waste at the district level and landfill sites, a diversification of funding resources is needed, including public-private partnership, increased private investments and international public finance through, among others, the climate mitigation and adaptation fund. Developing more attractive options for using organic waste and broadening knowledge on waste processing will be needed to increase market opportunities. Finally, disseminating information and raising awareness on the concept of zero waste and the benefits of environmentally sound treatment and disposal at all levels are critical factors in ensuring more effective organic waste management.

Hazardous waste
The legal and regulatory framework in the area of hazardous waste exists and is administered mainly by the Ministry of Environment. Poor coordination with other departments and agencies, insufficient regulatory capacity and a lack of infrastructure to reach established targets, however, hinder the effective implementation of existing laws. The lack of waste handling and treatment facilities, poor technical and scientific understanding of hazardous waste management, and non-compliance with relevant international regulations and Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) such as the Stockholm Convention, Basel Convention and the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM), constitute further hindrances. Capacity building for technical and scientific understanding about the sources of hazardous waste as well as its prevention, minimization and management are needed. In terms of inter-institutional coordination, more efforts need to be undertaken to enhance the communication and coordination among responsible bodies by establishing a permanent multi-stakeholders committee on hazardous wastes. The management of hazardous waste being ranked as a relatively low priority by the government, there is a considerable lack of funding, causing insufficient monitoring, controlling and enforcement of hazardous waste treatment and disposal. The need to develop effective and innovative financing mechanisms, involving the government and the private sector in its design and coordination, persists. Moreover, the public remains mainly unaware about the impacts of hazardous waste and is not being involved in monitoring and advocating environmentally sound management of this waste stream. The current state of low public participation could be improved by targeted campaigns, raising awareness on the adverse impacts of hazardous waste on the environment and human health.

Industrial waste
The legal and regulatory framework in the area of hazardous waste exists and is administered mainly by the Ministry of Environment. Poor coordination with other departments and agencies, insufficient regulatory capacity and a lack of infrastructure to reach established targets, however, hinder the effective implementation of existing laws. The lack of waste handling and treatment facilities, poor technical and scientific understanding of hazardous waste management, and non-compliance with relevant international regulations and Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) such as the Stockholm Convention, Basel Convention and the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM), constitute further hindrances. Capacity building for technical and scientific understanding about the sources of hazardous waste as well as its prevention, minimization and management are needed. In terms of inter-institutional coordination, more efforts need to be undertaken to enhance the communication and coordination among responsible bodies by establishing a permanent multi-stakeholders committee on hazardous wastes. The management of hazardous waste being ranked as a relatively low priority by the government, there is a considerable lack of funding, causing insufficient monitoring, controlling and enforcement of hazardous waste treatment and disposal. The need to develop effective and innovative financing mechanisms, involving the government and the private sector in its design and coordination, persists. Moreover, the public remains mainly unaware about the impacts of hazardous waste and is not being involved in monitoring and advocating environmentally sound management of this waste stream. The current state of low public participation could be improved by targeted campaigns, raising awareness on the adverse impacts of hazardous waste on the environment and human health.

Healthcare waste
The policy and regulatory framework for healthcare waste is put in place by the Ministry of Health and coordinated with other departments. As with other waste streams, coordination between mandated departments leaves room for improvement. The review and amendment of the existing healthcare waste management policies needs to take into account the relevant MEAs (Stockholm Convention and Basel Convention), SAICM and relevant guidance (such as the GEF guidance on healthcare waste management) by linking improved procurement practices and the green healthcare concept. Healthcare waste management is still low priority in Indonesia. It will be important to build up the capacity to review and develop an integrated and comprehensive approach for healthcare waste management. In Indonesia, the only available treatment option for healthcare facilities, mandated by the Ministry of Health and insufficiently evaluated and monitored, is incineration. While 20% of the hospitals use their own incinerators, the majority of waste is dumped in landfills or in illegal dumping hotspots together with MSW. Integrating the healthcare waste management strategy into the municipal strategies, increasing coordination among responsible institutions at all levels and eventually setting up a healthcare waste management system are important components of a more effective approach to healthcare waste management. A priority area for capacity building is the enhancement of the technical and scientific understanding of managing healthcare waste. Building capacity for providing waste handling and treatment facilities and its respective technical guidelines is critical to improve the management of healthcare waste. The Ministry of Health, supported by WHO, is currently conducting pilots in several cities to introduce non-incineration management of medical wastes. As some measuring devices, such as thermometer and sphygmomanometers, will be phased out by 2017, a special activity and regulation to manage waste containing mercury from the measuring devices is also currently ongoing in several cities. Hazardous wastes from the health care sector needs to be integrated into the national waste management strategy. When it comes to financing, funds to establish the appropriate waste management infrastructure are provided by the government and privately owned hospitals. A Public-Private Partnership scheme on medical wastes management has already been introduced in one province and needs to be reviewed for replication in other areas. To improve the effectiveness of public-private partnerships in managing healthcare waste, it is important to build capacity with waste operators and collectors. Drawing attention to the negative impact of bad waste management in healthcare centers and hospitals and among the broader public will require education and awareness raising campaigns as well as a more active involvement in monitoring and advocating for environmentally sound management of healthcare waste.

Waste plastics
Waste plastics constitute a growing problem, and specific policies addressing the EPR and plastic packaging wastes are expected to be issued by the end of 2013. The policy would be focusing on the design for environment (DfE) of products and packaging, take-back systems, and a restriction of plastic shopping bags. It is therefore necessary to introduce an integrated and life cycle approach on plastic manufacturing and waste management into the legal framework and to effectively enforce it. Such an approach, aiming at reducing the use of plastics, could include economic incentives and disincentives. Integrating waste plastics into the city level waste management from the upstream to the downstream level and building capacity to improve the coordination along the value chain will be important in this regard. In order to effectively address the waste plastics problem it is paramount to adequately involve the plastics industry in reducing the use of plastics by, among others, financing the management of waste plastics, applying the internalization of costs, extended producer responsibility (EPR) and corporate social responsibility (CSR). Guidance on technologies for the plastics’ life-cycle management, including wastes plastics management, needs to be made available. Research on and the implementation of the use of environmentally-friendly plastics is required. Public awareness is comparatively high on the issue, as shown in various movements, such as a campaign against the use of plastic bags or the introduction of environmentally friendly plastic bags. However, these voluntary efforts still lack the legal and policy support.

E-waste
The policies and regulations on waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) are issued by the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Trade. To improve the existing legal framework in this relatively new field of e-waste it is necessary to review and seek synergies with other existing regulations and to take into account the relevant MEAs (Stockholm Convention and Basel Convention), SAICM and other relevant guidance. Also, integrating WEEE management into the city level, increasing coordination across all policy levels and building the capacity for policy and regulatory enforcement is important. For both regulators and the industry implementing and monitoring extended producer responsibility (EPR) will be crucial to increase performance. To enhance the technical and scientific understanding of e-waste, two approaches could be integrated into the regulatory framework: the establishment, monitoring and regular updating of a comprehensive WEEE inventory and the introduction of a standard to eliminate, phase out and handle hazardous substances in WEEE’s life cycle. Until now, financing for WEEE management infrastructures remains low, demonstrating the need to develop sustainable financing schemes for the environmentally sound management of WEEE. It will be necessary to involve both the industry and the public to increase awareness on the social, economic and environmental impacts of WEEE, as awareness of the harmfulness of e-waste to human health and the environment is still low in Indonesia.
Waste agricultural biomass
Waste agricultural biomass (WAB) and its conversion to energy still play a relatively minor role in policy and regulatory approaches. Even though some corporate initiatives have been undertaken, there are no policies and laws at the national or local levels that would provide incentives to further promote the utilization of waste agricultural biomass. There is still a low understanding on WAB processing and utilization and its life cycle approach, a field where efforts in capacity building are required. To mainstream WAB knowledge and technology and scale it up at later stages, the financing for pilot projects on WAB processing and utilization is needed. The lack of information and awareness on WAB management can be mitigated by raising awareness at all levels.