Madagascar

Submitted by Ministry of Environment and Forests
Summary of information
Highest priority waste streams
1. Hazardous waste
2. Waste plastics
3. E-waste
Highest priority areas of capacity building
1. Policy and regulatory
2. Financial
3. Technical and scientific
Narrative summary
In Madagascar (Ministry of Environment and Forests)’s responses to the needs assessment survey, a number of waste streams are identified as high priorities for better management, including hazardous waste, plastic waste, e-waste and MSW. The lack of appropriate policies for these waste streams needs to be addressed (MSW policies exist but they are not implemented). The country’s responses also reveal that more funds are needed to conduct studies and procure equipment for the management of more specific waste streams, such as plastic waste and e-waste. The responses nevertheless suggest the implementation of an eco-tax on waste as an appropriate mechanism to secure funds.

Hazardous waste
Hazardous waste management is ranked as the highest priority area for capacity-building in Madagascar. The country is a ratified signatory of the Basel Convention (LAW N° 98 022, 1999; DECREE N° 99 141, 1999), yet crucially, enforcement levels are low. For mainly financial reasons, the trans-boundary movements of hazardous waste into Madagascar are not well-monitored or policed. The country lacks the ability to secure funds for institutions such as the National Committee for the implementation (of the Basel Convention), for the procurement of waste management equipment, and for public education. Madagascar hence requires a source of funding to effectively implement its national laws and international agreements. The responses propose the expansion of the existing Ecotax on waste as a possible solution.

Waste plastics
The management of waste plastics is also seen as a very high-priority area for capacity-building. Madagascar currently does not have legislation regulating waste plastics; the development of legislation is considered the most pressing priority. The implementation of regulations, however, will also require financial resources. Funds are needed for the development of technical equipment and guidelines on the management of waste plastics. The public, as waste plastic generators, should also be better educated to practice waste prevention or minimization. The responses suggest that future legislation should be developed into a wider policy framework for the long-term management or reduction of waste plastics. Nevertheless, developing regulations would be a useful first step.

E-waste
E-waste is equally ranked as a very high-priority area for capacity-building in Madagascar. Again, the country lacks legislation addressing the waste stream, as well as financial resources for its implementation. Funds are needed especially for procuring technical equipment and developing a set of guidelines regarding the characterization of e-waste. Furthermore, governmental institutions are particularly weak in dealing with the new threat of e-waste; clear responsibilities need to be delegated. The possibility for community involvement in segregation of e-waste should also be explored. In short, the development of a policy with sound financial support is needed.

Municipal solid waste (MSW)
MSW management is equally seen as very important to Madagascar. Fragmented regulations exist with regards to MSW management, but there is no overarching long-term policy direction. Attention thus needs to be given to the state of MSW legislation in the country, while implementation needs to be more effective. There is also room for improvement with regards to Madagascar’s capacity for MSW management. Existing equipment is poorly maintained, while more funds are required for new waste collection equipment. Finally, as waste generators, the public could also be better educated on basic concepts of MSW management. Existing policies, therefore, could be enforced much more effectively through policy expansion and a supply of resources.

Healthcare waste
Although regulations on healthcare waste management exist in Madagascar (Decree n°2006-680, 2006), financial attention is clearly required. There are no funds allocated to healthcare waste management in the public sector. This has led to the aging and poor maintenance of equipment that has been continuously in use. From a societal perspective, there is a general lack of understanding of the hazards of healthcare waste among the public. Technical deficiencies are not only limited to the public; there is also an absence of skilled human resources within authorities responsible for healthcare waste management.

Industrial waste
Legislation regarding industrial waste management exists in Madagascar (MECIE: Setting in Compatibility of Investments with the Environment; Decree n°2004-167, 2004; Decree n°99-021, article 23: industrial waste). The implementation of these laws, however, require firstly better technical capacities (currently severely lacking), and secondly a source of funding. Funds are additionally needed to communicate with and inform local communities. The local communites will be potentially directly affected if residing in the vicinity of industrial waste dumps or landfills. From an institutional perspective, coordination between agencies and between the public and industrial sectors must also be improved.

Organic waste and waste agricultural biomass (WAB)
Organic waste and WAB management is not considered a great priority for Madagascar. Specific legislation on these waste streams is non-existent, and they are not focal areas for governmental institutions. Thus a general commencement of initiatives with regards to these waste streams is needed. This should also include appropriate guidance to waste generators, an improvement in scientific understanding, as well as a sound financial base.