Mexico

Analyses for surveys submitted by (please select):
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Campeche state

Submitted by the Secretary of Environment and Sustainable Use in Campeche State
Summary of information
Highest priority waste streams
1. E-waste (including batteries and cell debris)
2. Waste tires and rims
3. Municipal solid waste
Highest priority areas of capacity building
1. Institutional
2. Financial
3. Social
Narrative summary
The Secretary of Environment and Sustainable Use in Campeche State’s responses to the needs assessment survey suggest that the enforcement of regulations on specific hazardous waste streams (such as e-waste and waste batteries) is a priority need. Furthermore, many local-level governments are in short of funding for waste management, and are unable to construct facilities for collection and recycling with their own means. Therefore, to improve the state of waste management in general, better cooperation is needed with the private sector, and the recycling industry should be developed. Better coordination of activities amongst governmental institutions at all levels, as well as the participation of local communities, would also be highly desirable.

E-waste
E-waste is ranked as the highest priority waste stream for better management in the state of Campeche. Equipment such as obsolete batteries and cell debris are a challenge to the waste management capacities of the state. Although e-waste policies exist and are overseen by the state government, the enforcement of policies by institutional bodies is a priority area for improvement. Institutions are usually unsure of each other’s capacities and responsibilities, and thus do not coordinate their efforts for waste management. Moreover, the technical capacity of Campeche in treating e-waste needs to be improved. There are currently no programmes or facilities available for the treatment, recycling, and disposal of e-waste in the state. Waste generators often do not know what to do with waste electronic equipment. The creation of partnerships between the public and private sectors is suggested by the responses as a means of securing funds for building technical capacities. Public education of the benefits of e-waste management is also necessary in order to promote practices such as waste segregation across the state.

Waste tires and rims
Waste tires and rims from vehicles are a particular area in which better waste management is needed. Although there are rules for the treatment of waste tires and rims, there are neither enforcement instruments to carry out the rules, nor the appropriate infrastructure and facilities for their recycling and disposal. The responses suggest that the development of private sector industries for recycling waste tires and rims should be made a priority. Recycled tires and rims are expected to be useful as a resource for public works projects, and the general public must be made aware of these benefits if waste segregation and recycling is to take place.

Municipal solid waste (MSW)
MSW management is also considered a high priority for the state of Campeche. The public sector and municipal governments are in charge of managing MSW, subject to differences between different individual municipal regulations. Municipal governments, however, generally lack funds for equipment, collection vehicles and technology. MSW recycling is also not always practiced by the municipal communities, while waste is rarely characterized and treated as a resource. Promoting an outreach campaign to the private sector for building technical capacity is suggested, while awareness raising and the involvement of communities are definitely needed.

Organic waste
General policies for organic waste exist in Mexico. However, in order to be effectively implemented, coordination between governmental institutions on the federal, state, and local level needs to be improved. Creating partnerships between governmental institutions at different levels is a high-priority area for improvement. Yet equally, the public must be made aware of the policies through sound environmental education. Finally, the state currently lacks equipment for the collection, characterization and treatment of organic waste. Funds need to be made available for these technologies.

Hazardous waste and industrial waste
Above all, financial investment needs to be made towards the construction of facilities for the treatment and disposal of hazardous and industrial waste in Campeche. The responses emphasize that facilities will need to be able to cover a wide range of waste, including pesticides, agricultural chemicals, and batteries. Many other types of waste would benefit from monitoring and assessment. Public awareness is also a primary area for capacity-building, as many people are unclear of the health and environmental risks posed by hazardous and industrial waste. The state government needs to cooperate with non-governmental organizations, the private sector, and community representatives. Greater public awareness will increase the effectiveness of existing laws on hazardous and industrial waste due to greater vigilance.

Waste agricultural biomass (WAB)
Above all, financial investment on equipment and infrastructure for WAB management is needed. There is a clear potential for programmes to encourage the use of WAB as a resource to succeed, if more funding were to be made available, and if governmental institutions were to cooperate. On the one hand, farmers should be trained on the use of WAB especially as a fertilizer, or towards WAB management in ways that minimize risks to the environment. On the other hand, farmers should also be made more aware of existing agricultural laws and regulations.

Healthcare waste
Healthcare waste is not seen as a great priority for better management in Campeche. Currently the private sector is responsible for healthcare waste management. The federal government oversees the application of regulations on the classification and management of biologically infectious waste (NOM-087-SEMARNAT-SSA1, 2002). Better cooperation between different stakeholders is nevertheless desired. In particular, the healthcare sector has not been the target of many educational campaigns. As waste generators, the support of healthcare staff is clearly required. Finally, better financial investment into healthcare waste management would be welcome.

Waste plastics
The management of waste plastics is not seen as a great priority for Campeche. Nevertheless, a wide range of issue areas need to be addressed. Cooperation between the public and private sector is inadequate, even though improvements are being made. The private sector has recently been charged with the operation of a collection and disposal center for waste plastics. Waste segregation and recycling is also poorly understood by the public; community participation in the management process for waste plastics needs to be improved. Finally, there is a lack of skilled human resources (as well as technical equipment) in the recycling industry. Qualified staff and experts are needed in the recycling sector if sustainable, long-term recycling programmes are to be successful.

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First Climate

Submitted by First Climate (private sector)

(Note: First Climate did not provide comments and did not prioritize waste streams)
Summary of information
Highest priority waste streams
N/A
Highest priority areas of capacity building
1. Technical and scientific
2. Policy and regulatory
3. Financial
Narrative summary
The responses to the needs assessment survey received by First Climate, a private sector stakeholder, show that Mexico needs to above all strengthen its technical and regulatory capacity for waste management. Improving financial capacity would also be beneficial to waste management in the country..

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Femsa Foundation

Submitted by Femsa Foundation (private sector)

(Note: Fundacion Femsa did not prioritize areas of capacity-building and did not provide comments for some waste streams)
Summary of information
Highest priority waste streams
1. Municipal solid waste
2. Hazardous waste
2. Industrial waste and waste plastics
Highest priority areas of capacity building
N/A
Narrative summary
The responses of the Femsa Foundation to the needs assessment survey suggest that the current regulatory framework in Mexico lacks economic and regulatory incentives. Putting them in place would lead to higher private investments into waste management. There is a clear need to develop guidelines and to increase knowledge on the valorization of waste. The management of MSW, the highest priority waste stream, can be improved by building up technical capacities in private companies. Improving monitoring and verification of waste collection is necessary within public institutions. The Femsa Foundation underlines the importance of extending recycling infrastructure so as to increase the prospects of financial viability.

Municipal solid waste (MSW)
The Femsa Foundation ranks MSW as the priority waste stream for capacity-building. The lack of public awareness of the importance of at source separation is a major challenge for waste management in Mexico. From an economic perspective, institutional and financial adjustments need to be made in the waste sector. The government needs to make available more funds for infrastructure and technology developments, so as to increase the economic value of reusing and recycling waste. At the same time, the informal sector of waste collection needs to be regulated in a way that companies invest and create employment, also benefiting informal rag-pickers. The MSW sector in Mexico is fragmented and compliance with existing waste collection guidelines is hard to monitor. Therefore, strengthening capacities on verification and monitoring as well as developing waste management plans within municipal governments is considered indispensable and an area in need of capacity building.

Industrial waste
Mexico has industrial waste policies that are however only poorly enforced. As the answers to the needs assessment survey suggest, this is due to the lack of both financial and regulatory incentives that would enable companies to shift towards comprehensive waste management in line with existing industrial waste policies. Also, Mexico lacks technical infrastructure for recollection, reuse and disposal of industrial waste. For that to change and to create comprehensive waste management chains, the Femsa Foundation identifies the need to create and improve technical capacities in the private sector. A major challenge for the disposal of industrial waste is the low price of the materials contained in this waste stream, considerably hindering a professional and economically viable management. In order to increase the price for materials and hence attract private investment, it is necessary to put in place incentives. The funding of infrastructure, such as new recycling plants and improved collection systems, needs to be complemented by incentives to increasingly use recycled materials.

Waste plastics
The waste stream of plastics and other materials is highlighted as important for Mexico. Above all, exportable materials such as plastics, aluminium, cardboard, etc. need to be valorised within the Mexican market. According to the Femsa Foundation, the regulatory framework is not favourable for the construction and operation of more efficient recycling plants. Also, in private companies capacities need to be strengthened and recycling infrastructure built up, so that materials can be reused within the Mexican market.

E-waste
The Femsa Foundation identifies a lack of transparency concerning the actors involved in the e-waste stream. From the regulatory side, it is necessary to clearly establish which actors can engage in the processes of collection, recycling and valorization of e-waste. On the policy level, there is the need for clear signals through constant economic incentives that induce consumers to change inefficient and dispose damaged electronic materials correctly. Awareness campaigns could complement regulatory and economic efforts and increase demand for recycled materials, fostering needed private investment into e-waste management.

Organic waste
In Mexico technical knowledge on composting and uncontrolled anaerobic emissions from MSW landfills needs to be increased. Capacity-building on applicable technologies as well as funding for projects would be welcome.

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Mexico City

Submitted by Minister of the Environment, Mexico City Government

(Note: Minister of the Environment did not address certain waste streams and areas of capacity-building)
Summary of information
Highest priority waste streams
1. Municipal solid waste
2. Organic waste
3. Waste plastics
Highest priority areas of capacity building
1. Policy and regulatory
2. Technical and scientific
Narrative summary
Mexico City has developed its own policies and regulations regarding MSW in the city. Other waste streams fall under national jurisdiction. Nevertheless, policies need to be developed in order for waste streams within MSW (such as organic, plastic and electronic waste) to be segregated and treated individually. The maintenance of current facilities and the introduction of innovative technologies for waste management is also a key theme in Mexico City’s responses to the needs assessment survey. In particular, the scope of waste collection and treatment activities (such as composting and e-waste recycling) needs to be expanded.

Municipal solid waste (MSW)
MSW management is the highest priority area for capacity-building in the highly urbanized Mexico City federal district. Despite the implementation of policies (such as the Solid Waste Law for the Federal District and the Rules and Programme of Integrated Management of Solid Waste), only an estimated 85% of waste generated is collected. The responses suggest that this is due to fair or poor maintenance of infrastructure, and the lack of implementation of new technologies such as energy recovery. The technical capacity of the Ministry of Works and Services (in charge of the equipment and facilities) needs to be improved. More funds need to be made available in order for infrastructure, such as the vehicle fleet for waste collection, to be upgraded. The promotion of waste management at source to support governmental efforts is also important. However, current campaigns for promoting waste segregation and the 3R concept through mass media have not yet succeeded in adequately increasing public participation. Finally, given that MSW management is the responsibility of many agencies of Mexico City (such as the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Works and Services), a supervisory body for solid waste management could be set up to coordinate activities.

Organic waste
Organic waste is also an important priority waste stream for capacity-building in Mexico City. The waste stream is regulated by the Solid Waste Act of the Federal District in the same manner as MSW, and no separate legislation exists. However, separate composting attempts are being undertaken through joint efforts by Ministries and the Institute of Science and Technology, with the creation of a composting plant. The main area for capacity-building regarding organic waste is thus to greatly expand composting efforts, as the current composting capacity (2,500 tons per day) amounts only to slightly more than half of the organic waste generated in total.

Waste plastics
Waste plastics are regulated as part of MSW (Solid Waste Act of the Federal District), and no separate legislation exists. However, the Secretariat of Environment (and other agencies) has produced guidelines for the sustainable production and consumption of plastic products, aiming to target plastic products earlier in their life cycles. Nevertheless, an adequate technical capacity for the segregation and treatment of waste plastics in Mexico City should be achieved first and foremost. The federal government and the National Institute of Ecology have developed the Comparative Study of Degradable Plastic Bags versus Conventional Bags using Life Cycle Analysis tools as a first step in the direction of improving technical and scientific understanding.

E-waste
In Mexico City, e-waste is regulated by the same federal district laws and policies as MSW (Solid Waste Act of the Federal District; Programme of Integrated Solid Waste Management for the Federal District). Some facilities are available for the collection and recycling of e-waste in Mexico City. These facilities are recognized and used by local communities. Developing comprehensive legislation on e-waste is thus the priority need for the city, while increasing technical capacity and facilities for e-waste management is also an important task.

Hazardous waste and industrial waste
Mexico City does not have its own regulations and plans regarding the hazardous and industrial waste streams. The waste streams fall under federal jurisdiction (General Law of Ecological Balance and Environmental Protection; General Law on the Prevention and Integrated Management of Waste), and are delegated to the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of the Federal Government.

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MGM Innova

Submitted by MGM Innova (private sector)
Summary of information
Highest priority waste streams
1. Municipal solid waste
2. Hazardous waste
3. Industrial waste
Highest priority areas of capacity building
1. Technical and scientific
2. Policy and regulatory
3. Financial
Narrative summary
The responses by MGM Innova to the needs assessment survey suggest that above all, Mexico needs to improve its technical and financial capacity in managing a number of waste streams. Issues such as poor waste transportation of hazardous and industrial waste need to be addressed, while facilities such as MSW landfills need to be improved in order to meet requirements and standards. Although policies and regulations are in force for most waste streams, the responses also suggest that enforcement capacity is needed. The awareness and participation of the private sector and the general public is therefore regarded as an important area for capacity-building across many waste streams.

Municipal solid waste (MSW)
MGM Innova considers MSW to be the highest priority waste stream for better management in Mexico. Most importantly, many municipalities do not have the technical capacity for environmentally sound waste collection and disposal, while not enough funds are allocated to waste management from their budgets. In particular, many landfills do not meet standards, and skilled human resources are lacking. Finally, public participation in MSW management at source could also be improved.

Hazardous waste
MGM Innova also considers hazardous waste to be a high priority waste stream for better management. The technical and financial capacity of the country needs to be improved above all. More research needs to be undertaken on hazardous waste in Mexico, and technical guidelines for waste management should be made available. In particular, hazardous waste prevention and the remediation of polluted soils are two issues that require immediate attention. Legislation exists on hazardous waste at many governmental levels, but nevertheless public awareness on environmentally sound waste treatment could be improved. Better awareness would facilitate the involvement of more stakeholders, such as the private sector, in hazardous waste management.

Industrial waste
Industrial waste is also considered to be a high priority waste stream for better management. The lack of financial resources and facilities to treat, in particular, hazardous waste from the industrial sector, needs to be addressed above all. There are also gaps in the country’s legislation regarding the collection and transportation of industrial waste. Furthermore, the industrial sector and governmental institutions need to cooperate and coordinate their efforts in industrial waste disposal. Cooperation can bring about the potential for in-situ treatment of industrial waste, although the country’s technical capacity for these processes must be evaluated.

Healthcare waste
Regulations on healthcare waste exist in Mexico. Nevertheless, the responses by MGM Innova suggest that strengthening the technical capacity and awareness of healthcare staff on waste management appears important. In particular, the consequences of mismanagement of healthcare waste are rarely considered by healthcare staff. There is a lack of commitment by the government, the healthcare sector, and related stakeholders (such as waste transportation companies) to address the issue of awareness and understanding. Therefore, stakeholders must be urged to comply with healthcare waste regulations.

E-waste
Above all, more research is needed on the issue of e-waste and potential environmentally sound treatment methods in Mexico. Guidelines and regulations on e-waste do not exist on a national level and must be developed according to the findings of research. Many stakeholders, such as the private recycling sector, can be encouraged to participate in e-waste management. Better participation would bring technical capacity and skilled human resources to the management of the waste stream.

Waste plastics
Currently, a significant quantity of plastic waste (polyethylene terephthalate in particular) generated by Mexico is exported abroad. Policies must be enacted to encourage the management of waste plastics in Mexico itself. In particular, the technical capacity for plastic recycling must be developed. The private recycling sector should be encouraged to expand its plastic recycling capacity, and new recycling facilities and plants need to be constructed. The recycling process would also benefit from better participation by waste generators in the area of waste segregation.

Organic waste
Organic waste management is still limited in Mexico. Treatment facilities are limited in number and the volume of waste treated is very much unknown. The country’s policies and regulations need to be strengthened, given that there is a lack of an organic waste management framework, and the treatment methods and capacities of existing facilities are not monitored or reported. Finally, public awareness on waste segregation would also help implement organic waste treatment on a large scale.

Waste agricultural biomass (WAB)
WAB management is very limited in Mexico, and is not considered a high priority area for capacity-building. Nevertheless, the development of capacities in many areas needs to be encouraged. An awareness and understanding of WAB management and its benefits should be created, while policies encouraging the use of WAB as an energy resource should be developed. Skilled human and technological resources for WAB management should also be procured.

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Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources

Submitted by Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources

(Note: The Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources did not provide comments and did not rank areas of capacity-building)
Summary of information
Highest priority waste streams
1. Industrial waste
2. Municipal solid waste
3. Waste agricultural biomass
Highest priority areas of capacity building
N/A
Narrative summary
The responses received from the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources show that industrial waste management needs to be strengthened. Other important waste streams requiring capacity-building include municipal solid waste, waste agricultural biomass and e-waste.

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Poza Rica city, Veracruz state

Submitted by Government of Poza Rica City, Veracruz State
Summary of information
Highest priority waste streams
1. Organic waste
2. Municipal solid waste
3. Waste plastics
Highest priority areas of capacity building
1. Financial
2. Social
3. Technical and scientific; institutional
Narrative summary
Poza Rica Government’s responses to the needs assessment survey suggest that many waste management activities are troubled by financial limitations. Financial problems have led to inadequate coverage of organic waste and MSW management, both high priority waste streams for the city. The lack of funds has also prevented studies on industrial pollution, and maintenance for city pipes contaminated by hazardous waste. The responses also emphasize the need of local communities to need to take the initiative in waste management activities, for example in collecting and segregating waste plastics.

Organic waste
Organic waste is ranked as the highest priority for the city of Poza Rica, Veracruz. By organic waste, the city authorities refer to sewage, not kitchen waste. Regulations on sewage management exist, but according to the responses to the survey, 90% of the city’s sewage is discharged untreated into water bodies, leading to the loss of wildlife and deterioration of ecosystems. In order to enforce the existing laws, financial resources are needed to connect domestic pipes to the city’s sewage system and to build a wastewater treatment plant. Financial resources are also needed to provide suburban areas with sanitary services. Some ecological dry latrines are currently being installed, but the service cannot yet be extended to every family in need of it.

Municipal solid waste (MSW)
Another public service that is considered to be in need of capacity building is MSW management. Regulations exist and are partially being implemented. A company has been contracted to provide collection, segregation, recycling and final disposal. However, although around 80 percent of the city’s available budget is used to pay for waste collection services, these services do not cover the whole city. For example, as public parks are not serviced, uncollected waste is often dumped in the city’s rivers. Nevertheless, the contract is currently being renegotiated. In addition to capacity building in the area of finance, it is also important to strengthen public awareness and create a culture of recycling. Efforts are being undertaken to create ecological education clubs in areas of the city where MSW management is most needed.

Waste plastics
Closely related to the issue of MSW is the issue of waste plastics in Poza Rica Veracruz. Regulations on the recycling of plastics exist, but they are not applied, mainly because there is a lack of social awareness and information on how to effectively recycle. Educational programmes (such as garbage classification training) are underway, working with community groups, universities, and private companies aiming to create a recycle culture, but more needs to be done. Another problem is the lack of financial resources to purchase recycling containers for public spaces such as parks and schools, which again leads to waste being dumped in the city’s rivers.

Industrial waste
Another waste stream that is in need of further capacity building is industrial waste. Although regulations exist and are partially implemented, the emissions from industrial waste still need to be addressed, as they create local air pollution and lead to respiratory diseases in the city. The city lacks the financial resources to measure air pollution levels, even though it has the technical capacity to analyze emissions data (if it were provided). There is also a need to strengthen institutional capacity and coordination between the public and the private sector. In addition to emissions affecting the broader public, workers directly exposed to the risks of dealing with industrial waste need to be better trained.

Hazardous waste
Although not a top priority for the city of Poza Rica, Veracruz, there is a need to improve hazardous waste management. Although regulations exist, they are inadequately implemented. Leaking pipes from production facilities need to be addressed, as they lead to hazardous contamination of city pipes, and more importantly, of streams and rivers. Although the technical knowledge to prevent and detect leaks at an early stage exists, the city lacks the appropriate equipment for the task. In addition to improving equipment, there is also a need to strengthen coordination and cooperation between the government and the private sector.

E-waste
In the area of e-waste management, regulations exist, but they have not been adequately disseminated and promoted. The most pressing problem to address is the lack of knowledge of consumers on appropriate disposal methods for e-waste; consumers instead abandon or discard end-of-life electronic goods in the open. Although recently there have been campaigns to promote better e-waste management, public awareness and technical capacity on the management of this waste stream is still lacking.

Healthcare waste
Healthcare waste is not considered a priority for capacity building as it is already well regulated and managed. Strict regulations exist and are enforced by federal authorities. Regulations involve public and private institutions and ensure coordination among the different stakeholders. Healthcare facilities need to finance their own waste management, including training for healthcare facility staff.

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South Pole Carbon

Submitted by South Pole Carbon (private sector)

(Note: South Pole Carbon did not provide comments and did not prioritize waste streams)
Summary of information
Highest priority waste streams
N/A
Highest priority areas of capacity building
1. Financial
2. Institutional
3. Technical and scientific
Narrative summary
The responses received by South Pole Carbon, a Carbon consultancy working in Mexico, show that the country needs to improve its access to funds for waste management. Other important areas of capacity-building for waste management include institutional strengthening and technical and scientific understanding.

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Yucatan state

Submitted by Government of Yucatan State

(Note: The Government of Yucatan State did not prioritize and address certain waste streams)
Summary of information
Highest priority waste streams
N/A
Highest priority areas of capacity building
1. Financial
2. Policy and regulatory; social
3. Technical and scientific
Narrative summary
The responses to the needs assessment survey suggest that the Government of the State of Yucatan sees an urgent need in promoting public-private-partnerships in order to mobilize resources for better management of waste streams. Making technologies more accessible has been emphasized. Capacity building on technologies and financing schemes could support public administrations in this endeavor. In the regulatory field, regulations will need to be developed for waste agricultural biomass and existing legislative arrangements for other waste streams require better enforcement. Low citizen participation and awareness on waste-related issues call for an increase in environmental education and campaigns.

Municipal solid waste (MSW)
The state government of Yucatan highlights the insufficient allocation of public funds to MSW as well as a lack of interest of the private sector in this area. While the establishment of public-private-partnerships is presented as a solution to increase funding, building up financial and technical capacities to engage in activities of this type is considered as essential. Moreover, enforcement of existing regulations is poor and economic instruments that encourage compliance are needed. The State of Yucatan also points out the low interest of the local population, highlighting therefore the need for promoting formal and informal environmental education programmes. On the technical level, equipment for the operation of landfills and waste collection is considered insufficient to effectively handle MSW. Emphasis is put on the scarce technical capacities and human resources in municipal governments, which is mainly due to the institutional arrangement of relatively short political mandates. Staff in municipal governments would need technical training and inter-municipal associations would need to be strengthened in order to increase cooperation and use scarce resources more efficiently.

Waste agricultural biomass (WAB)
In the existing environmental regulations there is no clear definition of WAB. An adequate integration of this waste type into the regulatory framework would be benefitial to attract investment, both public and private. In the state of Yucatan, farmers lack access to efficient low-cost technologies and agricultural firms have not yet taken up this technology. Due to scarce public funds, schemes of public-private-partnerships shall be promoted and incentives for the private sector created, so that WAB can unfold its potentials.

Organic waste
Both private and public investment into the disposal and use of organic waste are relatively low in the State of Yucatan. What is needed, are pilot projects on compost technologies and the development of schemes that facilitate and scale up the implementation of locally used technologies. A major obstacle is the low participation of citizens in composting, which could be mediated by awareness-raising campaigns to harness the culture of composting in the state. In terms of capacity building, a lower priority level is assigned to regulatory and institutional training. However, the government of Yucatan highlights that enforcement for waste separation is low, that local institutions need to be strengthened and that human resources for composting need to be developed within local authorities.