|According to the responses, dumping of waste on roadsides, canals, and low-lying land is common in Pakistan, while very few landfills are in operation (no permanent landfills are to be found in the capital, Islamabad). In light of these problems, the institutional capacity of the public sector emerges as a primary area for strengthening in Pakistan. While MSW policies exist, implementation levels are poor due to ill-equipped governmental institutions. Governmental environmental institutions are generally directed by politicians or public sector workers who do not have enough knowledge on waste management. Waste management experts need to participate in environmental governance in order to improve MSW management in the country. Furthermore, waste disposal practices in society need to be improved. There is little awareness of the health and environmental hazards generated by untreated or dumped MSW; community participation will be needed for policies to be effective. The implementation of MSW policies will finally require a sound source of funding to environmental institutions.