|In the Philippines, MSW is addressed by the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act (2000) (Republic Act no. 9003). Municipalities and cities must additionally implement solid waste management plans. However, only approximately 70% of MSW generated (30,000 tons per day nationwide; 8,000 tons per day in Metropolitan Manila) is collected and treated. Uncollected MSW is dumped into rivers, lagoons and sewers, causing water management issues such as flooding and pollution.
In light of incomprehensive waste management, technical capacity-building is ranked as an area of high priority. Systems of waste characterization, collection and transport require improvement in terms of equipment and guidelines (such as a waste analysis and characterization survey). Different waste streams found within MSW, such as construction/demolition waste and marine litter, need to be addressed. Existing dumpsites, especially if in environmentally critical areas, must be immediately rehabilitated. To improve technical capacities for MSW management, local government units will need to overcome financial obstacles, given that large-scale waste management efforts, such as sanitary landfills, require construction. Contracting activities to the private sector or the establishment of public-private partnerships are valid options.
New technological and financial support should then be implemented into more comprehensive policies. Only 338 out of 1,610 cities in the Philippines have MSW management plans in operation. Clear roles should be delineated to institutions such as the Department of Education and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. New strategies should also not neglect the social dimension of MSW management. Informal recyclers and rag-pickers could be organized more efficiently, while locally developed waste treatment technologies should be given attention.