|MSW management is ranked as the highest priority area for capacity-building in Thailand. Above all, the country requires better technical capacity. Skilled human resources for MSW management are needed, and waste collection and disposal practices need to be standardized by carrying out nationwide studies. Policy and implementation areas also need to be improved. A clear framework for MSW management addressing waste segregation, collection, transportation, disposal and monitoring issues is absent. Existing fragmented laws are poorly implemented, supported by a small budget and a lack of staff. While Thailand aims to enforce the Polluter Pays Principle with regards to MSW, efforts to involve waste generators and the private sector need to be strengthened, developing private sector markets for waste management (including contracting or public-private partnerships) However, societal awareness and interest in MSW management is low; waste problems are often simply neglected and environmental values are absent. Political interference on waste management projects also compromise efficiency. MSW management efforts in Thailand therefore must be directed towards technical strengthening, as well as policy-making and community involvement.