Yemen

(Note: no indication of institution or sector responding to survey)
Summary of information
Highest priority waste streams
1. Healthcare waste
2. Hazardous waste
3. Industrial waste
Highest priority areas of capacity building
1. Policy and regulatory
2. Technical and scientific
3. Financial
Narrative summary
Yemen’s responses to the needs assessment survey suggest that the highest priority waste streams for capacity-building are sector-specific hazardous wastes (such as healthcare and industrial waste). Policies and technical guidelines are not comprehensive enough in addressing these waste streams, and are priorities for improvement. Currently, a limited number of references to hazardous wastes are made in legislation, and guidelines exist only for healthcare waste. The responses also mention that the country seeks better funding to improve its overall waste management capacity.

Healthcare waste
Healthcare waste management is ranked as the highest priority area for capacity-building in Yemen. The National Plan for Healthcare Waste Management (2008) addresses the waste stream, and Healthcare Waste Management in the Republic of Yemen (2009) acts as a set of technical guidelines. Nevertheless, it is a priority to develop legislation and regulations to enforce waste management plans. Also importantly, funds are needed for the purchase of equipment to treat healthcare waste. Funds will also be needed to educate waste generators in practices such as waste segregation. Finally, healthcare and environmental institutions will need to better coordinate their activities to effectively implement waste management plans.

Hazardous waste
Hazardous waste management is ranked as a very high priority area for capacity-building in Yemen. Hazardous waste is addressed adequately by legislation in the country. Law No. 26 (1995) on the protection of the environment, Regulation No. 148 (2000), and the National Strategy of Integrated Management of Hazardous Waste for the Implementation of the Basel Convention in Republic of Yemen (2005) address the waste stream. However, regulations are not effectively implemented as they are not complimented by policy frameworks and technical guidelines for the management of hazardous waste. The development of these accompanying documents is thus a priority for Yemen. In addition, funds for the purchase of equipment for hazardous waste management are needed. Public awareness of the risks of hazardous waste is also low; local communities need to also be the targets of capacity-building efforts.

Industrial waste
Industrial waste management is ranked as a very high priority area for capacity-building in Yemen. There are currently neither policies nor technical guidelines addressing industrial waste management in the country. The development of these documents is therefore a priority need. Financial, social and institutional areas also require a degree of capacity-building. Efforts to improve industrial waste management will require funding, interest from governmental institutions, and public support.

E-waste
E-waste management is ranked as a high priority area for capacity-building in Yemen. There are currently neither policies nor technical guidelines addressing the management of the waste stream in the country. It is thus a priority that these documents are developed, whether for e-waste on its own, or as part of initiatives on hazardous waste. Financial, social and institutional areas also require a degree of capacity-building. Efforts to improve e-waste management will require funding, interest from governmental institutions, and public support.

Waste plastics
There are currently neither policies nor technical guidelines addressing the management of waste plastics in Yemen. Waste plastics are often disposed into dumpsites. It is thus a priority that appropriate legislation is enacted, and the technical capacity to manage the waste stream is developed. Financial and social areas also require a degree of capacity-building. Equipment and facilities for the management of waste plastics will require support in funding, while community participation in waste segregation would be welcomed.

Organic waste and waste agricultural biomass (WAB)
There are currently no policies addressing the management of organic waste and WAB in Yemen, and they are not ranked as high priority areas for capacity-building. The development of a policy framework would nevertheless be beneficial, while guidelines for the use of organic waste in particular would be welcomed. To encourage the resourceful use of organic waste and WAB, funds will be needed, and local communities will need to be made aware of the potential benefits of waste management.

Municipal solid waste (MSW)
In Yemen, the need for capacity-building in MSW management is low. Policies for MSW management are in existence, although not always implemented adequately. Nevertheless, the country most needs to improve its technical capacity for MSW management. Equipment for the collection and disposal of MSW is not well-used, and is poorly maintained. Technical guidelines for MSW management thus need to be developed. Local communities also could play a bigger role in MSW management, if the benefits of waste segregation were better understood.