Azerbaijan

Submitted by Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources

(Note: The Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources did not prioritize waste streams and capacity-building areas)

Summary of information
Highest priority waste streams
N/A
Highest priority areas of capacity building
N/A
Narrative summary
Azerbaijan (Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources)’s responses to the needs assessment survey show that the country is taking the initiative to address certain aspects of waste management. Policies and facilities for a number of waste streams already exist, or are currently being developed. However, the responses also show that the full range of waste treatment strategies is not explored. For example, MSW management generally centers upon waste disposal, while waste minimization and recycling strategies for different streams within MSW are less frequently used. Finally, the responses also show a general need for resources such as funds, technology and institutional strengthening that would improve the effectiveness of waste management in the country.

Industrial waste
In Azerbaijan, industrial waste management is regulated by legislation. The responses suggest that the legal framework on waste management is being improved, even if coordination between regulatory authorities is is sometimes challenging. However, the lack of technological infrastructure for industrial waste management is a key area where capacity building is required. Technical guidelines, funds, and skilled human resources are needed; cooperation with outside agencies is suggested as a way to pro cure them. Waste generators also need to be informed of waste segregation techniques through awareness campaigns so as to assist the waste management process.

Hazardous waste, including healthcare waste and e-waste
Legislation on hazardous waste disposal exists in Azerbaijan, covering healthcare waste but not e-waste. However, funds and human resources are needed in order to enforce regulations and meet legal requirements in waste management. Hazardous waste management at the societal level of waste-generating industries and consumers, such as waste s egregation, needs to be improved. Coordination between responsible institutions is also generally poor regarding the waste stream. As a future direction, a scientific framework, including technical guidelines on hazardous waste management, should be developed. This should cover especially e-waste given that specific regulations are currently non-existent.

Municipal solid waste (MSW)
In Azerbaijan there are some efforts at MSW management, but they could be improved and expanded. The country has implemented legislation and has made some technological progress (such as building incinerators to address existing waste in landfills). Governmental institutions have worked together to manage MSW. The responses suggest that some legislators are satisfied with the state of MSW management in the country; however the situation can still be improved by employing scientific and societal-based approaches to waste management. Modern infrastructure, technical guidelines and skilled human resources are still in demand. Waste segregation is not adequately practiced by local communities, thus participation and awareness can be improved.

Waste plastics
The management of waste plastics is not addressed by specific legislation in Azerbaijan. The enactment and enforcement of legislation for this waste stream is required. Moreover, technical capacity for the management of waste plastics, especially skilled human resources and adequate funding, is still needed. Finally, public education aimed at promoting t he segregation of waste plastics from other MSW would also benefit the country’s environmental activities.

Organic waste
Organic waste is not addressed on its own, but alongside other waste streams in laws such as “On Industrial and Household Waste”. Segregation and composting of organic waste is thus not yet practiced; the scientific capacity for segregation and composting is in need of improvement. Nevertheless, new projects, such as the recycling of organic waste in lan dfills, are being developed. Funds, public education activities, and better coordination of responsible institutions are required if efforts on organic waste management are to be successful.

Waste agricultural biomass (WAB)
WAB is addressed specifically in Azerbaijan law. Regulations cover agricultural biowaste as well as pesticides. However, a new and more scientific strategy regarding, for example, energy recovery from WAB, would be welcome. Nevertheless, educating waste generators on waste segregation is a prerequisite to implementing new strategies. Better commitment, coordination and funds for governmental environmental institutions would also make a positive impact to WAB management in the country.