IEA Training Manual - Module 3

3.3.3 Case study: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA)

From the outset, the MA instituted an “engagement and outreach strategy.” Responsibility for this strategy was formally assigned to the MA Secretariat. From the beginning of its work, MA leaders understood the need to ensure that key actors would be engaged and informed, that broader audiences would be reached, and that this process would have to be carried on as an integral part of the whole scientific assessment.

Step 1: WHY. Impact statement: What did the MA want to see as the outcome of its work?

The MA was carried out to assess the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being, and to establish the scientific basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems and their contributions to human well-being.

Step 2: WHO are the key actors, and how to build relationships with them

Before starting the scientific work, MA proponents proceeded to:

  • confirm the need for the assessment by consulting the three main international conventions that directly deal with ecosystems (Convention on Biological Diversity, Convention to Combat Desertification and Ramsar Convention on Wetlands);
  • position the assessment within the formal decision making processes of these conventions, and obtain formal expression from the UN on the need to conduct the assessment; and
  • identify a broad range of users.

Step 3: WHAT knowledge is to be gathered

In addition to consultations with key actors, the MA conducted an assessment of the information needs of a broad range of users. This assessment became the basis for the outline of the MA reports as designed by the scientific panel, and remained a reference point throughout the process.

Step 4: HOW to reach key actors and broader audiences

The strategy defined two distinct areas of action.

  • Engagement
    –     provide target users with adequate access to the process of the information generated; and
    –     enable broader audiences to access the products of the assessment, and benefit from networks and capacities growing out of the assessment process.
  • Communication
    –     raise understanding and awareness of the MA and how to use it; and
    –     convey key messages from the findings to targeted audiences and the public.

Figure 4: Millennium Ecosystem
Assessment Engagement Strategy


Ultimately, the engagement strategy was an effort to ensure that adequate access to the process and products existed, so the MA could be widely shared, and would continue to yield fruits beyond its conclusion in 2005. This, in turn, would result in input from users into the process, enhancing its legitimacy, and improving the capacity of users to interpret and act on the findings of the assessment.

Several channels were used to enable engagement (Figure 4):

  • MA Board meetings engaged users in the process;
  • the user needs assessment mentioned above;
  • the MA constantly produced ad hoc briefings, trying to seize as many opportunities as possible to address large numbers of users and present them with information about the assessment;
  • open calls were issued to the public, governments and institutions to nominate scientists to participate in the assessment as authors or reviewers, and to submit proposals to undertake sub-global assessments affiliated with the MA;
  • a website and newsletter were established, and a data sharing system developed;
  • the internal, formal procedures of some target users were utilized to feed the MA and subject it to discussion.
  • multistakeholder meetings were organized in various countries to present the MA and invite discussion on its relevance in each national context;
  • a procedure to invite academies of sciences and scientific organizations was established, whereby these entities supported the MA in the identification of scientists and the
  • dissemination of information; and
  • the process of sub-global assessments was in itself another mechanism to connect the MA to local, national and regional processes.
Communication (outreach)

The MA communication effort focused on raising awareness about the MA and supporting the
demand for:

  • the assessment reports and associated information;
  • integrated assessments at the sub-global scale; and
  • training to conduct such assessments.

Making the MA visible to the media. One concern of the communications team was to achieve a certain level of press attention when the information was finally released. Three approaches were used.

  1. Organizing seminars for the media while the assessment was being conducted to explain what it was, why it was being done and what to expect from it.
  2. Establishing a loose working group with the media officers of partner organizations.
  3. On the day of the official release, press briefings and seminars were organized in 13 cities around the world. This ensured that appropriate angles and languages were used to draw national media attention.

Keeping the visibility of the MA before the users. The assessment was a four-year endeavour. Even after being approached and consulted at the inception of the assessment, targeted users needed to be kept updated and reminded of upcoming work. These activities were also meant to build momentum and expectations, and consisted of multiple briefings and smaller meetings in international and national arenas.

Facilitating access to MA products. A constant concern of the MA was to ensure that as many people as possible could access the information. Again, there were three approaches.

  1. Targeted publications. In addition to the full technical assessment reports, the MA produced six synthesis reports aimed at different users. The information contained in the main assessment volumes was summarized and repackaged in short, carefully designed volumes dealing specifically with biodiversity, desertification, wetlands, health and business and industry, plus a general synthesis directed at a more general audience.
  2. Translations. Translating the information into various languages proved to be one of the main weaknesses of the MA process. While thoroughly aware of the need to do so, resources were insufficient to undertake this task adequately.
  3. Electronic communications. Establishing electronic communication mechanisms was important, including a website, a system to share data and an intranet system for internal communications.

Partnering. The engagement and outreach team of the MA saw its communication activities as an instrument not just to reach out and convey an image of the MA but also as a mechanism to enhance the ownership of the MA, and improve the ability of third parties to understand and make better use of it. Hence, the MA sought to rely on as many partners as possible for outreach, and to encourage as many third parties as possible to undertake outreach for the MA on their own. This resulted in several instances where volunteers approached the MA to undertake activities, which was highly beneficial in dealing with media enquiries. Partnering required the following two elements.

  1. A minimum level of coordination in terms of setting key dates and sharing basic strategies.
  2. Generating materials to support outreach by third parties. These materials were shared through the intranet, but also through an “outreach kit” distributed on CD. This kit contained a collection of elements developed by the MA, including:
    –     guidance on how to explain the MA to the uninitiated;
    –     guidance on how to develop a communications strategy (see Addendum 2);
    –     graphic elements (posters, maps, logos, photographs, videos); and
    –     PowerPoint slides.

Early products. The MA did not wait until the end to start releasing some outputs. In particular, releasing the conceptual framework and early findings on sub-global assessments (SGA) allowed for better outreach during the process.

Step 5: Monitoring, evaluation and improvement

The MA engagement and outreach team was continuously haunted by the question of how to define success. How would they know they had been successful in supporting the goals of the assessment? Following are some of the items that were discussed.

  • Government buy-in. For example, would resolutions from international bureaucracies be an indicator of the effective use of the information, or a tactic to protect the process? Government involvement, however, was very effective in attracting leading scientists.
  • An international arrangement to deal with the problem. Was the MA inserted in a clear political context in which the information would catalyze such action?
  • A proliferation of sub-global assessments. Would the dissemination of the practice of integrated assessments around the world be an indicator of real success?
  • Media attention. Besides being short-term, one has to be careful what the results of this attention are. By and large, when the information was released, the media focused on the negative side of the message, as in the front page article of Le Monde, below.

In an effort to communicate more effectively, the MA strove to develop some powerful metaphors to explain its concepts and findings. Perhaps the most important was that of “nature as capital” and ecosystem services.” While clearly effective, these metaphors were taken up to draw some controversial conclusions, as the cover of The Economist shows.


In the end, the team concluded that success for the assessment needed to be measured by demand for information and expertise from a broad range of places and interests. Further use of the information (for example to start or influence a political process) is a result of the work, and clearly shows it is having some effect.

Group Discussion

What do you think are the strengths and weaknesses of the impact and communications efforts of these examples?

EXERCISE 5: Building an impact strategy

In this segment of the training, you will break up into smaller groups to work together on developing an impact strategy. At the end of this section, you will have prepared a draft impact strategy using the steps described in this module. Throughout the remainder of the workshop, the draft strateg(ies) will be revisited, and you will be asked to consider whether and how to revise and strengthen your strateg(ies).

If you are participating in this training with your IEA team, then this might become a draft strategy that will be useful to you in your IEA process. If you are working in mixed groups or with people that you would not work with for your real assessment, this will be an activity to practise the steps.

Please select a chairperson and a rapporteur who can capture and present your results in plenary.

Step 1: Drafting the impact statement

First you need to prepare an impact statement. Remember that this can be refined later on.
    Key departmental decision-makers will use the information gathered during the assessment to develop policy priorities, departmental strategic plans and budgets.
    State, as well as national, level planners will review the findings of the assessment, and prepare internal policy briefs on how they will address the recommendations of the assessment.

Breakout group exercise

  • Discuss within the group what you specifically want to see changed as a result of your assessment.
  • Prepare a statement of the impact that you want your assessment to have.
  • Write the statement on your flip chart under the heading Step 1.

Step 2: Identification of WHO you are trying to have an impact on
Next, you need to identify the key actors who are in positions to make the changes that you would
like to see.

Breakout group exercise

  • On your flip chart, under the heading Step 2, list ten people you most want to reach with your assessment findings. List them by name and position. If you don’t know their names, then list their position titles. Do not list categories of people (e.g., members of parliament, private sector). You must be as specific as possible.
  • Discuss within the group:
    –    Why do you want to reach them?
    –    How feasible is it that you can reach them?
    –    Are there other people who can reach them better than you can? Who might they be? Write these on the chart, too.
  • Once you have listed ten key actors, and the names of others connected to them, you can move to listing some broader categories of people (e.g., reporters at a leading newspaper, names of influential NGOs, university departments). This is the broader community of interest who you may wish to champion and work with your findings. Again, be specific. Do not simply list “business, government and civil society.” Write the information on the flip chart.

Step 3: Discussion of WHAT knowledge you need to collect, and how that knowledge is collected

The balance of this training programme will provide you with more details on what information to gather and how to collect it. In building the influencing strategy, it is important to recognize that what you want to learn may not be what a decision-maker needs to know. Building trust with them will help to ensure that you are getting a clear picture of what they need, and will help you define issues and priorities that they want to address.

Plenary discussion

  • What are the different ways you can build trust with people in this context?
  • How will you find out more clearly what your ten key actors need to know, what their interests are and how the information will be of use to them?
  • How is your selection of issues influenced by their stage in the issue cycle?

Breakout group exercise

  • Prepare two–three statements of the information you intend to collect for your assessment. Write these on your flip chart under the heading Step 3.
  • Prepare a short description of how you will interact with your key actors during the assessment period.

Step 4: Planning HOW to bring the report to the attention of key actors

Now you need to think about the tools and tactics you can deploy to bring the report to the attention of the 10 target people you have identified, and to others who may be able to influence the 10. Remember that in Module 7, you will learn more about the technical production and release of the mandated outputs required from the assessment. Here you can brainstorm around a much broader range of opportunities to deliver your findings. These include:

  • workshops;
  • formal presentations to departmental and parliamentary committees;
  • lunches with representatives of NGOs to do special briefings;
  • exclusive events with private sector interests to discuss how the assessment is relevant to them;
  • website publications;
  • electronic conferences to discuss findings; and
  • news media interviews.

Plenary discussion

  • What else should go on this list of opportunities to tell people what you are working on and what you are learning?

Communications channels and techniques are important. But you also need some key messages.

Breakout group exercise

  • In the group, discuss two–three key messages drawn from previous assessments you have worked on. What were some of the strengths and weaknesses of these? If you have not worked on an assessment before, think about what the key messages might be from one of the case studies discussed in Section 2. What might be the key message for your new assessment? Under the heading Step 4, record one of the key messages.
  • Discuss three approaches that you might take to promote your messages and findings to your key actors, to broader audiences and to the general public, all of whom can influence your key actors on your behalf. List these approaches under Step 4 on your flip chart.

Pulling the strategy together

Now you get to compare your strategy with those of the other breakout groups.

Breakout group presentation of Steps 1-4.

  • Share your Steps 1-4 with the rest of the training group.
  • Post the flip charts for each step together so that groups can see the variations in impact statements, key relationships and so forth.
  • This is your very rough master outline, and it will give you a sense of what your impact strategy for your assessment might become. Now, you need to review and refine it.ii

Plenary discussion

  • On the impact statement.
    –    Are there any further considerations?
    –    Is there a general acceptance of the impact statement by the group?
    –    Record exceptions or variations in opinion, as these may re-emerge later in the training programme.
  • On WHO the strategy is targeting.
  • –    Are there any other individuals or groups that should be added to the list?
    –    Media. Have you included the names of key journalists who are influential in your country?
    –    NGOs. Have you included the names of key people in NGOs who might help to promote the assessment’s recommendations?
    –    Now that you have zoomed in on your key actors, what are some of the broader groups you should reach out to? What about women’s groups? Can they become supporters of your work? What about village councils and district authorities? What about Chambers of Commerce? What about youth organizations?
  • On WHAT:
    –    Discuss challenges you may face in engaging your key actors in order to more clearly understand what those actors need to know.
  • On HOW:
    –    Keep in mind that messages depend on the results of your assessment.
    –    Do any of these messages relate to issues that are relevant to women? How can you craft a message that will reach women effectively?
    –    Are there any other possible channels for communication? Have you thought about ways to reach important minority voices, such as young people and people living below the poverty line? How will you reach some of the broader groups like local authorities, village councils and district administrations?

Step 5: Monitoring, evaluation and improvement of your impact strategy

Monitoring and evaluating mechanisms will be discussed in more detail in Module 8. But for now, let’s think about some general signals that will tell you whether your strategy is having impact.

Plenary discussion

  • What are some indications that you are influencing your key actors?
  • What are some ways that you can keep track of your performance on the strategy?

Reality check and final plenary discussion

Preparing, implementing and monitoring an impact strategy takes time. What resources do you think might be required to implement this strategy? If your resources are limited, what would be the most critical elements that you would implement? Are there any partnerships you could form to help you? For example, how might you work with your government communications department?

What does your group as a whole think of the draft strategy? What are its possibilities? What are its limitations?


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- - 12 Dec 2013
“I’ve never thought of it, my dear boy, I’ve never thought of it; I don’t want any orphan girl. She’ll remind me of our bitter lot, our misfortune! I want no one but Natasha. She was my only child, and she shall remain the only one. But what does it mean that he should have thought of an orphan? What do you think, Ivan Petrovitch? Is it to comfort me, do you suppose, looking at my tears, or to drive his own daughter out of his mind altogether, and attach himself to another child? What did he say about me as you came along? How did he seem to you — morose, angry? Tss! Here he is! Afterwards, my dear, tell me afterwards. . . . Don’t forget to come tomorrow.”
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- - 11 Dec 2013
I showed it. I knew that Anna Andreyevna cherished a secret dream that Alyosha, whom she called at one time a villain and at another a stupid heartless boy, would in the end marry Natasha, and that the prince, his father, would consent to it. She even let this out to me, though at other times she regretted it, and went back on her words. But nothing would have made her venture to betray her hopes before Nikolay Sergeyitch, though she knew her husband suspected them, and even indirectly reproached her for them more than once. I believe that he would have cursed Natasha and shut her out of his heart for ever if he had known of the possibility of such a marriage.
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- - 06 Dec 2013
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- - 06 Dec 2013
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- - 06 Dec 2013
He had already spent nearly a year in exile. He used to write at stated intervals respectful and sedate letters to his father, and at last was so at home in Vassilyevskoe that when his father himself came in the summer (giving Nikolay Sergeyitch warning of his visit beforehand), the exile began of himself begging his father to let him remain as long as possible at Vassilyevskoe, declaring that a country life was his real vocation. All Alyosha’s impulses and inclinations were the fruit of an excessive, nervous impressionability, a warm heart, and an irresponsibility which at times almost approached incoherence, an extreme susceptibility to every kind of external influence and a complete absence of will. But the prince listened somewhat suspiciously to his request . . . Altogether Nikolay Sergeyitch could hardly recognize his former “friend.” Prince Valkovsky was strangely altered. He suddenly became peculiarly captious with Nikolay Sergeyitch. When they went over the accounts of the estates lie betrayed a revolting greed, a niggardliness, and an incomprehensible suspiciousness. All this deeply wounded the good-hearted Nikolay Sergeyitch; for a long time he refused to believe his senses. Everything this time was just the opposite of what had happened during the first visit, fourteen years before. This time the prince made friends with all his neighbours, all who were of consequence, that is, of course. He did not once visit Nikolay Sergeyitch, and treated him as though he were his subordinate. Suddenly something inexplicable happened. Without any apparent reason a violent quarrel took place between the prince and Nikolay Sergeyitch. Heated, insulting words were overheard, uttered on both sides. Nikolay Sergeyitch indignantly left Vassilyevskoe, but the quarrel did not stop there. A revolting slander suddenly spread all over the neighbourhood. It was asserted that Nikolay Sergeyitch had seen through the young prince’s character, and was scheming to take advantage of his failings for his own objects; that his daughter, Natasha (who was then seventeen), had ensnared the affections of the twenty-year-old boy; that the parents had fostered this attachment though they had pretended to notice nothing; that the scheming and “unprincipled” Natasha had bewitched the youth, and that by her efforts he had been kept for a whole year from seeing any of the girls of good family who were so abundant in the honourable households of the neighbouring landowners. It was asserted that the lovers were already plotting to be married at the village of Grigoryevo, fifteen versts from Vassilyevskoe, ostensibly without the knowledge of Natasha’s parents, though really they knew all about it and were egging their daughter on with their abominable suggestions. In fact, I could fill a volume with all the slander that the local gossips of both sexes succeeded in circulating on this subject. But what was most remarkable was that the prince believed all this implicitly, and had indeed come to Vassilyevskoe simply on account of it, after receiving an anonymous letter from the province. One would have thought that no one who knew anything of Nikolay Sergeyitch could believe a syllable of all the accusations made against him. And yet, as is always the case, everyone was excited, everyone was talking, and, though they did not vouch for the story, they shook their heads and . . . condemned him absolutely. Nikolay Sergeyitch was too proud to defend his daughter to the gossips, and sternly prohibited his Anna Andreyevna from entering into any explanations with the neighbours. Natasha herself, who was so libelled, knew nothing of all these slanders and accusations till fully a year afterwards. They had carefully concealed the whole story from her, and she was as gay and innocent as a child of twelve. Meanwhile the breach grew wider and wider. Busy-bodies lost no time. Slanderers and false witnesses came forward and succeeded in making the prince believe that in Nikolay Sergeyitch’s long years of stewardship at Vassilyevskoe he had by no means been a paragon of honesty and, what is more, that, three years before, Nikolay Sergeyitch had succeeded in embezzling twelve thousand roubles over the sale of the copse; that unimpeachable evidence of this could be brought before the court, especially as he had received no legal authorization for the sale from the prince, but had acted on his own judgement, persuading the prince afterwards of the necessity of the sale, and presenting him with a much smaller sum than he had actually received for the wood. Of course all this was only slander, as was proved later on, but the prince believed it all and called Nikolay Sergeyitch a thief in the presence of witnesses. Nikolay Sergeyitch could not control himself and answered him with a term as insulting. An awful scene took place. A lawsuit immediately followed. Nikolay Sergeyitch, not being able to produce certain documents, and having neither powerful patrons nor experience in litigation, immediately began to get the worst of it. A distraint was laid on his property. The exasperated old man threw up everything and resolved to go to Petersburg to attend to his case himself, leaving an experienced agent to look after his interests in the province. The prince must soon have understood that he had been wrong in accusing Nikolay Sergeyitch. 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I was not born here but far away in a remote province. It must be assumed that my parents were good people, but I was left an orphan as a child, and I was brought up in the house of Nikolay Sergeyitch Ichmenyev, a small landowner of the neighbourhood, who took me in out of pity. He had only one child, a daughter Natasha, a child three years younger than I. We grew up together like brother and sister. Oh, my dear childhood! How stupid to grieve and regret it at five-and-twenty, and to recall it alone with enthusiasm and gratitude! In those days there was such bright sunshine in the sky, so unlike the sun of Petersburg, and our little hearts beat so blithely and gaily. Then there were fields and woods all round us, not piles of dead stones as now. How wonderful were the garden and park in Vassilyevskoe, where Nikolay Sergeyitch was steward. Natasha and I used to go for walks in that garden, and beyond the garden was a great damp forest, where both of us were once lost. Happy, golden days! The first foretaste of life was mysterious and alluring, and it was so sweet to get glimpses of it. In those days behind every bush, behind every tree, someone still seemed to be living, mysterious, unseen by us, fairyland was mingled with reality; and when at times the mists of evening were thick in the deep hollows and caught in grey, winding wisps about the bushes that clung to the stony ribs of our great ravine, Natasha and I, holding each other’s hands, peeped from the edge into the depths below with timid curiosity, expecting every moment that someone would come forth or call us out of the mist at the bottom of the ravine; and that our nurse’s fairy tales would turn out to be solid established truth. Once, long afterwards, I happened to remind Natasha how a copy of “Readings for Children” was got for us; how we ran off at once to the pond in the garden where was our favourite green seat under the old maple, and there settled ourselves, and began reading “Alphonso and Dalinda “ — a fairy-story. I cannot to this day remember the story without a strange thrill at my heart, and when a year ago I reminded Natasha of the first lines: “Alphonso, the hero of my story, was born in Portugal; Don Ramiro his father,” and so on, I almost shed tears. This must have seemed very stupid, and that was probably why Natasha smiled queerly at my enthusiasm at the time. But she checked herself at once (I remember that), and began recalling the old days to comfort me. One thing led to another, and she was moved herself. That was a delightful evening. We went over everything, and how I had been sent away to school in the district town-heavens, how she had cried then! — and our last parting when I left Vassilyevskoe for ever. I was leaving the boarding-school then and was going to Petersburg to prepare for the university. I was seventeen at that time and she was fifteen. Natasha says I was such an awkward gawky creature then, and that one couldn’t look at me without laughing. At the moment of farewell I drew her aside to tell her something terribly important, but my tongue suddenly failed me and clove to the roof of my mouth. She remembers that I was in great agitation. Of course our talk came to nothing. I did not know what to say, and perhaps she would not have understood me. I only wept bitterly and so went away without saying anything. We saw each other again long afterwards in Petersburg; that was two years ago. Old Nikolay Sergeyitch had come to Petersburg about his lawsuit, and I had only just begun my literary career.
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- - 23 Nov 2013
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- - 23 Nov 2013
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- - 21 Nov 2013
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