IETC

International Environmental Technology Centre 

  日本語 

Compilation of cases of Ecosan and decentralized sanitation in selected asian countries

MeetingAs part of the project, the research and documentation team of CAPS created a compilation of project initiatives on Ecosan and decentralized sanitation in four countries:

  • the Philippines;

  • Vietnam;

  • Lao PDR; and

  • Cambodia.

These compiled case studies

  • will allow other practitioners to see the magnitude and types of projects already implemented, or lack thereof.

  • will facilitate replication and encourage up-scaling based on established best practices.

  • will encourage information sharing among practitioners.

The main issues highlighted by work on these case studies include

  • the need for further Ecosan / decentralized sanitation projects in the study countries;

  • the need for more thorough and publicly available project documentation by practitioners, to allow other interested practitioners easy access to the key details of these projects;

  • the need for an information clearinghouse to provide easy access to a library of sanitation projects.

A previous attempt was made with the Sanimap project (www.sanimap.net), but this has not been successful, as very few projects have been registered and the website is prone to crashing. The recommendation would therefore be to create a simpler, more accessible and stable application and encourage all practitioners to input their projects into it.

The documentation process was undertaken throughout the length of the project and a total of 38 case study reports were created:

  • 17 case study reports for the Philippines;

  • 8 case study reports for Cambodia;

  • 3 case study reports for Laos; and

  • 10 case study reports for Vietnam.

These figures, however, do not represent the number of individual projects documented, as many of the case studies were compilations of two or more individual projects. There are approximately 68 individual projects / programs encased in these 38 reports. The varying number of case study reports for each country was due to the differing number of Ecosan / decentralized sanitation projects being undertaken by NGOs in each country.

Among the case studies, the Philippines are the most represented country, because the documentation team was based there and had access to local knowledge and networks, as well as the ability to undertake local study visits to potential project sites. This was not the case with Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, for which the team had to rely upon internet searches and email requests to potential NGOs / government agencies. While many potentially documentable projects were identified in this manner, achieving contact with the involved project staff was not always possible. Another issue was often the lack of provision of adequate project documentation to allow the creation of a full case study, due to organizational restrictions on the release of internal reports. Information for several of the case studies was therefore limited, with some potential projects having to be disregarded altogether. Overall, though, the most relevant and interesting projects from the point of view of Ecosan / decentralized sanitation had enough documentation available to allow the creation of adequate case studies.

Based on the number of case studies gathered for each country outside of the Philippines, and with an equal amount of research resources allocated to each, the general picture that emerges indicates that Ecosan / decentralized sanitation is not yet common, especially in Laos. The research team was able to generate only three case study reports for this country, the projects contained within representing the work of only two organizations, and it is fair to say that these designs are virtually not being implemented in Laos currently, to the detriment of its citizens, over 50% of whom do not have access to improved sanitation. Cambodia is receiving more investment in Ecosan / decentralized sanitation projects, as is Vietnam, whose sanitation coverage and overall level of development is the highest of the three.

The Philippines appears to have the most investment in Ecosan / decentralized sanitation, even when the local bias of the documentation team is eliminated. The Philippines has the majority of Ecosan projects documented and a plethora of different decentralized sanitation projects as well. The country is benefitting from several important partnerships / NGOs that are promoting sanitation, such as the USAID Philippine Sanitation Alliance, an active chapter of BORDA and Ecosan groups like CAPS and WAND. The Philippine sanitation situation is already much improved thanks to the work of these groups. The UN reports that the country is on track to surpass its Millenium Development Goal (MDG) target for access to improved sanitation, which was at 88.6% in 2008 compared with a 85.9% target for 2015. Others countries, especially Cambodia, are not performing as well on their own targets. It is hoped that the positive examples documented in these case studies can trigger further investment in such projects in south-east Asia.

Philippine cases (click on content in "Project title/Sites column to download the report)

Case Study

Location

Project Title/ Sites

Project Classification

1

San Fernando, La Union

Ecological sanitation in San Fernando City, La Union:

  • Barangay Nagyubuyuban

  • Barangay San Agustin

  • Fishermen’s village

Ecosan

2

Valenzuela City, Metro Manila

Integrated waste management scheme for small and medium scale slaughterhouses

  • Bureau of Agricultural Industry, Valenzuela City DEWATS

DEWATS

3

Bayawan City, Negros Oriental

Integrated Waste Management System for Bayawan City

  • Fishermen’s Village, Villareal DEWATS

  • Barangay Villareal

  • Integrated Waste Management Facility, Barangay Maninihon

DEWATS

4

Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental

Local Initiatives for Affordable Waste Water Treatment (LINAW)

  • DEWATS in public market complex

  • Septage treatment facility, Barangay Camanjac

DEWATS

5

Across the country

Gawad Kalinga villages with ABR:

  • Bright Smiles, GK Village, Quezon City, Metro Manila

  • GK Mayao, Lucena, Quezon

  • Nestle GK, Lipa, Batangas

  • Mapahiusa GK Village, Tanjay, Negros Oriental

  • El Nido GK Village, Palawan

  • DMC GK Village, Davao City, Davao del Sur

DEWATS

6

Iloilo City, Iloilo

Preserving the Water Quality of Iloilo City

  • Public Abattoir, Plaza Liberted, Iloilo City

  • Iloilo Mission Hospital, Mission Road, Jaro, Iloilo City

DEWATS

7

Sta. Cruz and Nagcarlan, Laguna

Laguna de Bay Institutional Strengthening and Community Participation (LISCOP) project

  • Public slaughterhouse, Barangay Palayan, Nagcarlan, Laguna

  • Public slaughterhouse, Sitio 6, Barangay Palasan, Sta. Cruz, Laguna

DEWATS

8

Misamis Oriental

Closing the loop between sanitation and food security

  • Municipality of Initao

  • Municipality of Libertad

  • Municipality of Manticao

Ecosan

9

Across the country

Decentralized wastewater treatment systems by BNS-BORDA

  • Ateneo de Manila university, Quezon City, Metro Manila

  • Provincial capital of Bohol

  • Public market of Manjuyod, Negros Oriental

  • Public market of Sorsogon City, Sorsogon

  • VR abattoir of Antipolo City, Rizal

  • Abattoir of Zamboangita, Negros Oriental

DEWATS

10

Lilo-an, Cebu

Decentralized wastewater treatment facility for the Lilo-an public market

DEWATS

11

San Fernando City, La Union

Decentralized wastewater treatment “Eco Tanks” for the seaside communities of Barangays Catbangen, Poro, & San Francisco

DEWATS

12

San Fernando City, La Union

Decentralized wastewater treatment system for the San Fernando City slaughterhouse

DEWATS

13

Cagayan de Oro, Misamis Oriental

Biogas for the Cagayan de Oro City jail

DEWATS

14

San Fernando City, La Union

Decentralized wastewater treatment system for LORMA medical center – San Fernando City

DEWATS

15

Across the Country

Biogas wastewater treatment systems by the Philippine center for water and sanitation

DEWATS

16

Bauang, La Union

Ecological sanitation for the Municipality of Bauang, La Union

DEWATS

17

Metro Manila / San Fernando City, La Union / Metro Manila

Small-scale wastewater treatment systems for three Markets

  • Sta. Ana public market, Manila City

  • San Fernando city market, San Fernando City, La Union

  • Muntinlupa city market, Muntinlupa City

DEWATS

Table 1. List of documented Ecosan and decentralized sanitation in the Philippines

Vietnam cases (click on content in "Project title/Sites column to download the report)

Case Study No.

Location (City / Province)

Project Title / Sites

Project Classification

1

Cam Ranh District

Vinasanres Ecosan toilets in Cam Duc Commune

Ecosan

2

Ha Nam and Nam Dinh, Northern Vietnam

Double vault composting latrine program in northern Vietnam

  • Chinh Ly Commune

  • Don Xa Commune

  • Yen Thanh Commune

Ecosan

3

Kieu Ky Commune, Hanoi Capital District

Decentralized wastewater treatment system for Xom Cau 1 – Kieu Ky Commune

DEWATS

4

Ninh Binh Province / Ha Nam Province / Thanh Hoa Province

Decentralized wastewater treatment systems for a prison and two hospitals

  • Ninh Khanh prison

  • Kim Bang District hospital

  • Thanh Hoa pediatric facility

DEWATS

5

Tam Dao national park, Vinh Phuc Province

Decentralized wastewater treatment systems for the bear rescue center at Tam Dao

DEWATS

6

Khac Niem Commune, Bac Ninh City

Decentralized wastewater treatment systems for the Khac Niem Commune

DEWATS

7

Huu Hoa Commune, Hanoi City

Decentralized wastewater treatment systems for a private home in Huu Hoa Commune

DEWATS

8

Ha Long City

Decentralized wastewater treatment systems for the Ha Phong slaughterhouse

DEWATS

9

Kim Chung Commune, Hanoi Capital District

Decentralized wastewater treatment systems for Lai Xa – Kim Chung Commune

DEWATS

10

Up to 58 of the 64 Vietnamese provinces

Biogas digesters for Vietnamese

DEWATS

Table 2. List of documented Ecosan and decentralized sanitation in Vietnam 

Cambodia cases (click on content in "Project title/Sites column to download the report)

Case Study No.

Location (City / Province)

Project Title / Sites

Project Classification

1

Tonle Sap lake

Floating toilets for floating villages

Ecosan

2

Tonle Sap lake

Floating toilet project in Phat Sanday community, Tonle Sap lake

Ecosan

3

Battambang, Siem Reap, Pursat, Kampong Chhnang, & Kampong Thom Provinces

Tonle Sap rural water supply and sanitation sector project

Latrine-Building

4

Kandal Province

Decentralized wastewater treatment systems for the Sovann Komar orphanage

DEWATS

5

Trapeang Sab Commune, Takeo Province / Phnom Penh

Decentralized wastewater treatment systems for a commune and primary school

  • Trapeang Sab Commune

  • Chroy Chang Va primary school

DEWATS

6

Daeum Mien, Phnom Penh

Small scale sludge treatment system for Daeum Mien – Kandal Province

DEWATS

7

Kampong Speu, Kampong Cham, Takeo, Kandal, & Svay Rieng Provinces

Sanitation marketing for five Cambodian provinces

Latrine Marketing

8

14 Cambodian provinces

Biogas digesters for Cambodians

DEWATS

Table 3. List of documented Ecosan and decentralized sanitation in Cambodia

Laos People’s Democratic Republic cases (click on content in "Project title/Sites column to download the report)

Case Study No.

Location (City / Province)

Project Title / Sites

Project Classification

1

Vientiane City

First decentralized wastewater treatment system in Lao PDR

  • National University of Laos

DEWATS

2

Vientiane City / Vientiane City / Luang Prabang City

Decentralized wastewater treatment systems for a college, village, & primary school

  • Thongkankham village

  • Khoualuang primary school & temple

  • Agriculture and forestry college of Luang Prabang

DEWATS

3

Hin Heup City

Decentralized wastewater treatment system & desludging program for Hin Heup Town

DEWATS

Table 4. List of documented Ecosan and decentralized sanitation in Lao PDR

Regional consultation meeting (May 2011, Manila, the Philippines)

Regional consultation meetingThe regional consultation meeting (referred to hereafter as the “regional meeting”) was organized by CAPS in consultation with UNEP in order to discuss the results of this Project and engage with members of the practitioner groups undertaking some of the documented case study projects. Practitioners were invited from Cambodia, Lao PDR, Vietnam, Thailand, and the Philippines, as well as from various international organizations including: UNEP, KOICA, World Bank, ADB, USAID, UN Secretary General’s Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation (UNSGAB), and CITYNET.

The meeting was held from 30 to 31 May 2011 and was hosted by the Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank. It was followed by an field visit on 1 June to the Municipality of Bauang in the Province of La Union to view the other results of this project. In total, 53 participants attended either the regional meeting, the field Visit or both.