HomeReportsSubglobal AssessmentsIndonesia (Jakarta Bay and Bunaken)


Jakarta Bay and Bunaken Ecosystems Sub-Global Assessment

Project Summary

The Jakarta Bay and Bunaken ecosystems were assessed for the period 1992-2002. The Greater Jakarta Bay Ecosystem (GJBE) consists of two distinct parts: Jakarta Bay, which is strongly influenced by land-based activities, and Seribu archipelago, which is dominated by 110 small islands. The GJBE assessment focused on marine biodiversity and fisheries, recreation and pollution flowing into the bay The purpose of the assessment was to assist in informing policy for better management of the ecosystem, especially in the context of increased population growth and exploitation of ecosystem resources in the region. Management needs are at the local, regional and national level.

Direct drivers of ecosystem change in the GJBE area are related to regional economic activity. Habitat loss is caused by: population growth and urbanisation, demand for live fish, lack of control of emissions, mangrove deforestation and sand and coral mining. Drivers of resource depletion and habitat degradation include: demand for clean water, lack of sewage treatment, overexploitation of marine resources, and the socio-economic factors of poor oversight and lack of economic alternatives (poverty).

The Bunaken National Park of North Sulawesi was assessed for the Bunaken assessment. The purpose of the assessment was to assist decision-makers in making informed land-use policy. In Bunaken, the primary stakeholders are local government, NGOs and the private enterprises that established the Bunaken National Park Management Council. Tourism and fisheries production were the focus of the Bunakin assessment.

In the Bunaken National Park, major drivers of ecosystem change are population growth, tourism development and water temperature change leading to coral bleaching. Solid waste pollution is also a driver affecting cultural services. Creation of the Bunaken National Park Management Advisory Board in 2000 for socio-political oversight of the park is a positive driver of change.

Results indicate that both the GJBE and Bunaken regions are under pressure from intensive fishing and decreased water quality. Access to ecosystems services, such as clean water and sufficient nutritious food, are limited for many people. Poverty is a chronic problem.

Assessment Approach

Data for this assessment was collected from multiple sources, including government ministries, NGOs, and published scientific literature. In Bunaken, primary data from the Bunaken National Park Office and Natural Resources Management (NRM) was used in assessing status of coral reefs and other aspects of environmental integrity. Government statistics were used in calculations of human wellbeing.

Lead Institutions

The GJBE part of the assessment was carried out by Zainal Arifin and the Jakarta Bay Working Group. Reihart Patt and the Bunaken National Park Management Council lead the assessment for Bunaken.

Funding for the assessment came from GEF (seed fund) and the Indonesian Ministry of Environment.

Contact information

  • Mrs. Wahyu Indraningsih
    Ministry of Environment
    Assistant Deputy for Coastal and Marine Degradation Control
    Jl. DI Panjaitan, Kebon Nanas, Jakarta 13410
    tel. 6221-859 0568
    tel./fax: 6221 859 04929

Focal Issues

The focal issues of this assessment were ecosystems services, socio-economic well-being, and trends and drivers of change in the ecosystem. Corals reefs, fisheries, marine foods, waste management, quality of life for local residents and tourism were included in the assessment. The links between these diverse factors were assessed for the purpose of recommending management interventions for more sustainable long-term economic development and environmental protection.

Ecosystem services assessed

Provisioning services: fisheries and marine food sources; regulating services: water quality; cultural services: recreation and tourism opportunities. The effects of drivers of ecosystem change on marine biodiversity were also assessed.

Project Outputs and Results

Results of this assessment indicate that waste management is a major problem that must be addressed in management strategy. In addition to solid waste problems, the Jakarta Bay in particular is forced to absorb huge amounts of raw sewage and contaminated effluent. The pollution load of zinc, phosphate and nitrate has exceeded the assimilative capacity of the bay.

Marine biodiversity was mostly high in the study areas. However, fish catch has been decreasing in the GJBE. Marine-culture other than fishing (mussels, seaweed, etc) is extremely important to the economy of the region. Findings indicate that the socio-economic condition of local communities living on the islands and along the GJBE must be strengthened through development of fish and seaweed culture, as well as tourism, in order to improve the economic security of the population and contribute to more sustainable resource use.

In Bunaken, the number of fisher people, fisheries production, and tourism is increasing. Infrastructure related to the tourist industry is also expanding. The assessment identified sustainable level of dive tourism as a major research need in preserving the ecological integrity of the park. Destructive fishing techniques, including blast and cyanide fishing, and anchoring are responsible for much of the destruction of coral reefs in Bunaken.

The assessment recommends that government implement a cohesive development policy at the local and national level, and that this policy include both regulation and law enforcement. Mangrove forests, which are threatened by wood harvesting, should be better protected to reduce negative impacts on the fisheries and the ecological fabric of the coastline. Policy is needed to address all of the direct drivers of ecosystem change, including: land-use change, marine resource harvest and nutrient load.



© 2005 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment  
Site by CaudillWeb