Jakarta Bay and Bunaken Ecosystems Sub-Global Assessment
The Jakarta Bay and Bunaken ecosystems were assessed for the period 1992-2002.
The Greater Jakarta Bay Ecosystem (GJBE) consists of two distinct parts:
Jakarta Bay, which is strongly influenced by land-based activities, and
Seribu archipelago, which is dominated by 110 small islands. The GJBE assessment
focused on marine biodiversity and fisheries, recreation and pollution flowing
into the bay The purpose of the assessment was to assist in informing policy
for better management of the ecosystem, especially in the context of increased
population growth and exploitation of ecosystem resources in the region.
Management needs are at the local, regional and national level.
Direct drivers of ecosystem change in the GJBE area are related to regional
economic activity. Habitat loss is caused by: population growth and urbanisation,
demand for live fish, lack of control of emissions, mangrove deforestation
and sand and coral mining. Drivers of resource depletion and habitat degradation
include: demand for clean water, lack of sewage treatment, overexploitation
of marine resources, and the socio-economic factors of poor oversight and
lack of economic alternatives (poverty).
The Bunaken National Park of North Sulawesi was assessed for the Bunaken
assessment. The purpose of the assessment was to assist decision-makers
in making informed land-use policy. In Bunaken, the primary stakeholders
are local government, NGOs and the private enterprises that established
the Bunaken National Park Management Council. Tourism and fisheries production
were the focus of the Bunakin assessment.
In the Bunaken National Park, major drivers of ecosystem change are population
growth, tourism development and water temperature change leading to coral
bleaching. Solid waste pollution is also a driver affecting cultural services.
Creation of the Bunaken National Park Management Advisory Board in 2000
for socio-political oversight of the park is a positive driver of change.
Results indicate that both the GJBE and Bunaken regions are under pressure
from intensive fishing and decreased water quality. Access to ecosystems
services, such as clean water and sufficient nutritious food, are limited
for many people. Poverty is a chronic problem.
Data for this assessment was collected from multiple sources, including
government ministries, NGOs, and published scientific literature. In Bunaken,
primary data from the Bunaken National Park Office and Natural Resources
Management (NRM) was used in assessing status of coral reefs and other aspects
of environmental integrity. Government statistics were used in calculations
of human wellbeing.
The GJBE part of the assessment was carried out by Zainal Arifin and
the Jakarta Bay Working Group. Reihart Patt and the Bunaken National Park
Management Council lead the assessment for Bunaken.
Funding for the assessment came from GEF (seed fund) and the Indonesian
Ministry of Environment.
- Mrs. Wahyu Indraningsih
Ministry of Environment
Assistant Deputy for Coastal and Marine Degradation Control
Jl. DI Panjaitan, Kebon Nanas, Jakarta 13410
tel. 6221-859 0568
tel./fax: 6221 859 04929
The focal issues of this assessment were ecosystems services, socio-economic
well-being, and trends and drivers of change in the ecosystem. Corals reefs,
fisheries, marine foods, waste management, quality of life for local residents
and tourism were included in the assessment. The links between these diverse
factors were assessed for the purpose of recommending management interventions
for more sustainable long-term economic development and environmental protection.
Ecosystem services assessed
Provisioning services: fisheries and marine food sources; regulating
services: water quality; cultural services: recreation and tourism opportunities.
The effects of drivers of ecosystem change on marine biodiversity were also
Project Outputs and Results
Results of this assessment indicate that waste management is a major
problem that must be addressed in management strategy. In addition to solid
waste problems, the Jakarta Bay in particular is forced to absorb huge amounts
of raw sewage and contaminated effluent. The pollution load of zinc, phosphate
and nitrate has exceeded the assimilative capacity of the bay.
Marine biodiversity was mostly high in the study areas. However, fish
catch has been decreasing in the GJBE. Marine-culture other than fishing
(mussels, seaweed, etc) is extremely important to the economy of the region.
Findings indicate that the socio-economic condition of local communities
living on the islands and along the GJBE must be strengthened through development
of fish and seaweed culture, as well as tourism, in order to improve the
economic security of the population and contribute to more sustainable resource
In Bunaken, the number of fisher people, fisheries production, and tourism
is increasing. Infrastructure related to the tourist industry is also expanding.
The assessment identified sustainable level of dive tourism as a major research
need in preserving the ecological integrity of the park. Destructive fishing
techniques, including blast and cyanide fishing, and anchoring are responsible
for much of the destruction of coral reefs in Bunaken.
The assessment recommends that government implement a cohesive development
policy at the local and national level, and that this policy include both
regulation and law enforcement. Mangrove forests, which are threatened by
wood harvesting, should be better protected to reduce negative impacts on
the fisheries and the ecological fabric of the coastline. Policy is needed
to address all of the direct drivers of ecosystem change, including: land-use
change, marine resource harvest and nutrient load.