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Compilation of articles related to the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol from Rio+20.
Rio meeting can still produce a key climate outcome - The Hill, By Durwood Zaelke and Andrew Light - 20 JUN 2012
[... The parties in Rio have tentatively agreed “to support a gradual phase-down in the consumption and production of HFCs” which may be adopted on Friday by heads of government. While an improvement this agreement still provides no roadmap to get there...]
Global Demand for Air-Conditioning Forces Tough Environmental Choices - The New York Times, By ELISABETH ROSENTHAL and ANDREW W. LEHREN, 20 JUN 2012
[...The treaty timetable requires dozens of developing countries, including China and India, to also begin switching next year from HCFCs to gases with less impact on the ozone. But the United States and other wealthy nations are prodding them to choose ones that do not warm the planet. This week in Rio de Janeiro, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton will attend the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, also known as Rio+20, where proposals to gradually eliminate HFCs for their warming effect are on the provisional agenda. ...]
[... the industry is growing so fast that meeting the targets, which were based on consumption in 2009-10, would now require a 40 percent reduction from current use in India. Many countries, including India, are trying to satisfy their 2013 mandate with one-time fixes that do not involve the cooling sector — for example, replacing HCFC-22 with another gas in making foam. Meeting the next reduction target, in 2015, is expected to be much harder...]
[... In the meantime, the Montreal Protocol has started using its limited tools to prod developing countries moving from HCFCs toward climate-friendly solutions, offering a 25 percent bonus payment for plans that create less warming. Experts say that is not sufficient incentive for the drastic changes needed in machine design, servicing, manufacturing and regulation...]
[… Nothing underscores this Orwellian twist of logic more than the facts surrounding the now well negatively branded Cap and Trade program. Cap and Trade was a Republican inspired idea created during the debate over ozone and the Montreal Protocol in the 1980s. It was actually inspired by conservatives looking for the least command and control, least Government regulated way to meet pollution standards. It was implemented and it worked. And it is still working…]
The 1992 Earth Summit failed. Will this year's edition be different? - The Washington Post - 7 JUN 2012
[ ... Of the world’s 90 most important environmental goals set over the years, the U.N. report finds, significant progress has been made on just four of them, despite dozens of treaties and talks and conventions and meetings. One of the few big exceptions was the 1987 Montreal Protocol, in which world leaders agreed to phase out CFCs and other chemicals that were chewing through the protective ozone layer. That’s a rare instance of successful diplomacy, as the “ozone hole” above Antarctica has stopped growing and is soon set to shrink.
So can the 2012 Earth Summit be any more successful than past incarnations? The details that gummed up the 1992 talks — haggling over who would pay for what — haven’t disappeared. ...]
[La Conférence de Rio+20 est l'occasion de dépasser les velléités et ... disparu, conformément aux objectifs du Protocole de Montréal. ... Même si la progression du « trou » dans la couche d'ozone en ... L'un des groupes de substances chimiques de remplacement – les hydrofluorocarbones (HFC) – doit ...]
ENB, SUMMARY OF THE THIRD ROUND OF UNCSD INFORMAL INFORMAL CONSULTATIONS 29 MAY - ENB, 2 JUN 2012
[…• the phase-out of ozone depleting substances and the corresponding increase in the use and release of high global warming potential hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) ...]
[…Only a few multilateral agreements, such as the Montreal Protocol on the Protection of the Ozone Layer, which has precipitated a 98 percent drop in the consumption of ozone depleting substances, have produced meaningful results.
"The Montreal Protocol is a prime example of what can be achieved when countries work together effectively on agreed legal frameworks," said Amina Mohamed, deputy executive director of United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). ...]
[… Asked about the level of political will in Rio in 1992, he underscored the "romanticism involved" and great expectations as well as conceptual misunderstandings and concrete challenges, such as the expectations that the model for phasing out ozone depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons could be applied to carbon dioxide emissions. …]
The Rio Conferences and the Montreal Protocol