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Alternatives to HCFCs for new equipment and applications

Introduction

This list is a quick reference to raise awareness of National Ozone Units about available alternatives to replace or avoid HCFCs, which should be considered during the preparation of their countries' HCFC Phase out Management Plans (HPMPs).

The list indicates replacements for HCFCs for specific applications, based on references in the assessment reports of the UNEP Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) and its Technical Options Committees (TOCs). Only those alternatives which those reports identify as being commercially-available or being presently used by companies are included on this list. The list does not include alternatives that the TEAP/TOC reports indicate as being "future technologies" or in the research and development stage.

For many of the applications listed below, the HCFC and the non-HCFC options have co-existed for some time as replacements for CFCs. However, in light of the acceleration of the HCFC phase out resulting from Meeting of the Parties Decision XIX/6, this list places renewed attention on the non-HCFC options that are currently available.

Note:

  • This table only presents non-HCFC options for new equipment. It does not address or conversion of existing equipment (retrofits) or drop-in replacements.
  • In some cases, the alternatives indicated are for very specific applications.
  • Some of the alternatives listed may not be available in all markets.
  • The alternatives are listed in alphabetical order.
  • Alternatives in blue are fluorinated options, those in green are natural refrigerants, those with no color are not-in-kind options or other chemical alternatives.
  • Alternatives with (*) next to them are not mentioned in the TEAP reports.


Sectors where HCFCs
may be used
Specific application
Non-HCFC alternatives
Links to case studies
HCFC-22
Unitary air conditioning equipment Small self-contained air conditioners

• HFCs (R-407C, R-410A, R422D*)
• Hydrocarbons (R-290)

•R723*, evaporation*, solar/ absorption*

Links to case studies

Small water chillers of about 100 kW refrigeration capacity up to the capacity of centrifugal chillers Screw chillers

• Ammonia (R-717)
• HFCs (R-134a, R-410A)

•R723*

 


Links to case studies
Scroll chillers

• HFCs (R-134a, R-410A, R-407C)

• R744*

Links to case studies

Reciprocating chillers • HFCs (R-134a, R-407C)
• Hydrocarbons (R-290), Ammonia*
• Propylene (R-1270), R723*

Centrifugal chillers • HFCs (R-134a)


Commercial refrigeration equipment Large supermarket systems

• Ammonia (R-717)
• Carbon dioxide (R-744)
• HFCs (R-404A, R-407C, R-134a)
• Hydrocarbons (R-290, HC-1270)

• R723*


Links to case studies
Cold storage

• Ammonia (R-717), R744*
• HFCs (R-134a)

• R723*, air cycle systems*

Links to case studies
Ice cream freezers • Carbon dioxide (R-744), R600a*
• HFCs (R-404A, R-134a)
• Hydrocarbons (R-290)
Links to case studies
Water fountains • Hydrocarbons (R-600a)


Ice making machines

• HFCs (R-134a)

• R600a*

Links to case studies
Vending machines • Carbon dioxide (R-744)
• HFCs (R-134a)
• Hydrocarbons (R-290, R-600a)
Links to case studies
Glass-door bottle coolers • Carbon dioxide (R-744)
• HFCs (R-134a)
• Hydrocarbons (R-290, R-600a)
Plug-in display cabinets

• HFCs (R-404A)

• Hydrocarbons (isobutane)*

Links to case studies
Condensing unit systems (medium-sized commercial refrigeration) • HFCs (HFC-134a, R-404A, R-507A)
• Hydrocarbons, R744*
Links to case studies
Heat pumps Water-heating heat pumps • Ammonia (R-717)
• Carbon dioxide (R-744)
• HFCs (R-134a, R-410A, R-407C, R-404A)
• Hydrocarbons
Links to case studies
Industrial refrigeration Spiral, tunnel and blast freezers • Ammonia (R-717)
• Calcium chloride ("brine")
• Carbon dioxide (R-744)
• Ethylene glycol, air cycle systems*
• HFCs (R-404A)
Links to case studies
Industrial heat pumps and heat recovery • Ammonia (R-717)
• HFCs (R-134a, R-404A, R-407C)
• Hydrocarbons
• Water (R-718) and lithium bromide (absorption)
Links to case studies
Cooling of blade server computers in data centres

• Carbon dioxide (R-744)

• HFCs (R-134a, R-404A, R-407C) *

Links to case studies
Industrial chillers

• Water (R-718), Ammonia*, carbon dioxide*, absorption*, evaporation*

• HFCs (R-422a, R-422d, R-134a) *

• ice storage*

Links to case studies
Refrigerants for deep mines • Ammonia (R-717)
• HFCs (HFC-134a)
• Water (R-718)
Refrigerated transport and mobile air conditioning (excluding passenger vehicles) Reefer ships

• Ammonia (R-717)
• HFCs (R-134a, R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, HFC-23)

• air cycle systems*, passive refrigeration*

Refrigeration and air conditioning on merchant marine, naval and fishing
vessels
• Ammonia (R-717)
• Ammonia/carbon dioxide (R-717/R-744)
• HFCs (R-134a, R-507, R-404A, R-407C, R-410A)
Intermodal refrigerated containers

• HFCs (R-134a, R-404A)

• passive refrigeration*

Refrigerated railcars • Carbon dioxide (R-744)
• HFCs
Road transport (trailers, diesel trucks, small trucks) • Carbon dioxide (R-744)
• HFCs (R-404A, R-134a, R-410A)
• Hydrocarbons (R-290, R-600a)
Air conditioning in trains • Air cycle systems
• HFCs (R-134a, R-407C)
Air conditioning in buses

• HFCs (R-134a)

• Hydrocarbons*, carbon dioxide*

Foam Extruded polystyrene foam • Carbon dioxide (LCD) or with hydrocarbon blends
• HFCs (HFC-134a, HFC-152a, HFO-1234ze*)
• Hydrocarbons
• Water
Links to case studies
Rigid polyurethane foam (various applications)

• Carbon dioxide (water)
• HFCs (HFC-134a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc), HFO-1234ze*
• Hydrocarbons, natural oil*

• Methyl formate

Links to case studies
Polyethylene foam

• Hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide*, natural oil*

• HFO-1234ze*

• Methyl formate

Links to case studies
HCFC-141b
Foam Rigid polyurethane foam
(various applications)

• Carbon dioxide
• HFCs (HFC-134a, HFC-152a, HFC-245fa, HFC-365mfc), HFO-1234ze*
• Hydrocarbons (Pentane)
• Supercritical carbon dioxide

• Methyl formate

Links to case studies
Integral skin foam • Carbon dioxide
• HFCs (HFC-134a)
• Non-halogenated alternatives, methyl formate
Phenolic foam • 2-chloropropane
• HFCs (HFC-365mfc, HFC-227ea)
• Hydrocarbons
Links to case studies
Solvent applications Cleaning • HFCs (HFC-4310mee, HFC-245fa)
• HFEs
• Not-in-kind substitutes (no-clean, aqueous, hydrocarbon, oxygenated solvents)
• PFCs
• PFEs
Links to case studies
Aerosols Non-medical aerosol products • HFCs (HFC-134a)
• HFEs, HFO-1234ze*
• Hydrocarbons
• Not-in-kind substitutes (mechanical pumps, sticks, roll-ons, brushes, etc.)
• Water
HCFC-142b
Foam Extruded polystyrene board foam • Carbon dioxide (LCD) or with hydrocarbon blends
• HFCs (HFC-134a, HFC-152a), HFO-1234ze*
• Hydrocarbons
• Water
Links to case studies
Polyethylene foam

• Hydrocarbons

•HFO-1234ze*

• Methyl formate

 

Links to case studies
HCFC-225 ca/cb
Speciality solvents Precision cleaning and as a carrier solvent • HFEs
Links to case studies
Cleaning implantable or surgical medical devices • No information
HCFC-123
Low-pressure refrigerant in large air conditioning chillers Centrifugal chillers • HFCs (HFC-134a)
Refrigerants for deep mines • Ammonia (R-717)
• HFCs (HFC-134a)
• Water (R-718)
Fire extinguishant Portable fire extinguishers • AFFF
• Carbon dioxide
• Dry chemical (Potassium bicarbonate, Sodium bicarbonate)
• HFCs (HFC-236fa, HFC-227ea)
• Multipurpose dry chemical
• Water fog
• Water stream
Specialty solvents Electronics cleaning

• Not-in-kind alternatives (no-clean processes; aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning)
• Oxygenated solvents (e.g. alcohols, glycols, ethyl lactate)

•HFEs*

Links to case studies
HCFC-124
Fire extinguishant Total flooding applications • Aerosol powders (Powdered Aerosol A, Powdered Aerosol B)
• Carbon dioxide
• Gaseous agents containing particulate solids (HFC227-BC)
• Gelled mixture of HFC plus dry chemical additive)
• HFCs (HFC-125, HFC-23, HFC-236fa, HFC-227ea, HFC Blend A)
• Inert gases (IG-01, IG-100, IG-541, IG-55)
• Iodofluorocarbon (FIC-13I1, FIC-217I1)
• Perfluoroketone (FK-5-1-12)
Links to case studies
Local application fire protection • Carbon dioxide
• Dry chemical
• Foam
• HFCs (HFC-236fa, HFC-227ea)
• Surfactant blend A
• Water
Heat pumps   • No information

Links to case studies
Special air conditioning equipment   • No information
Links to case studies
Sterilant mixtures   • No information
Links to case studies
       
General Information  
Links to case studies



Sources:

UNEP, May 2008 Technology and Economic Assessment Panel Progress Report, Volume 1 (2008, Nairobi, Ozone Secretariat)

UNEP, Halon Technical Options Committee Technical Note #1 New Technology Halon Alternatives - Revision 3 (December 2007, Nairobi, Ozone Secretariat)

UNEP, 2006 Report of the Rigid and Flexible Foams Technical Options Committee 2006 Assessment (March 2007, Nairobi, Ozone Secretariat)

UNEP, 2006 Report of the Chemicals Technical Options Committee 2006 Assessment (March 2007, Nairobi, Ozone Secretariat)

UNEP, 2006 Report of the Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee 2006 Assessment (2007, Nairobi, Ozone Secretariat)

UNEP, 2006 Report of the Rigid and Flexible Foams Technical Options Committee 2006 Assessment (March 2007, Nairobi, Ozone Secretariat)

UNEP, Report of the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel May 2003 HCFC Task Force Report (2003, Nairobi, Ozone Secretariat)