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From 29 November to 10 December 2010, 16th edition of Conference
of the Parties of the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change (COP) in Cancun, Mexico.


COP16/CMP6 is the 16th edition of Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP) and the 6th Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP). "Parties" refers to all the national states that signed and ratified both of the international treaties, committing to observe and comply with its terms regarding international cooperation against climate change. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has been signed by 194 State Parties (list) and the Kyoto Protocol has been ratify by 184 State Parties (list). In accordance with Article 7 of the Convention, the Conference of the Parties in its authority of the supreme body has the mandate of adopting the necessary decisions for the promotion of its effective application.

The name COP refers to the english acronysm of the reunions of the State Parties on numerous International Treaties ("Conference of Parties"). However, due to the relevance of the subject within the international agenda, the name COP is related to Climate Change. These conferences are celebrated annually between the months of November and December. This year, the Conference will take place in Cancun, Mexico, yet it is important to highlight that it is the Convention's Secretariat that organizes them in conformity to the reunions standards established by the United Nations.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is composed of two general categories of participants: The State Parties and the observers. The observers are divided into Intergovernmental Organizations and Nongovernmental Organizations (Article 7 section 6), who must register and accredit themselves before the Convention's Secretariat in order to participate in the Conferences. Only the representatives of the registered organizations will be allowed to assist attend the sessions of the different bodies of the Convention, as observers.


The United Nations Climate Change Conference, Cancun 2010, was hosted by the Government of Mexico and presided over by Ms. Patricia Espinosa, Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the United Mexican States from 29 November to 10 December.

On Monday  6th December a side event was organized on : « Linkages between Kyoto and Montreal Protocols ». Speakers were : Juan Elvira Quesada, Minister of Environment and Natural Resourses, Dr. Mario Molina, Nobel Prize of Chemistry 2995, Kandeh K. Yumkella General Director of UNIDO.

To date, the Montreal Protocol has phased out 95% of these ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and simultaneously achieved great reductions of greenhouse gas emissions estimated at 135 G tonnes CO2 equivalent between 1990 and 2010.
· ODSs themselves possess a very high GWP
· Energy efficiency gains in the new appliances replaced or manufactured
· Foams produced with better insulating properties resulting in energy savings

New measures under the Montreal Protocol such as accelerating the phase out of HCFCs, promoting the adoption of low GWP alternatives and ensuring that waste ODS contained in refrigerators and foams are disposed of in an environmentally sound manner, can result in additional climate benefits. To that extent, the emission reductions resulting from the phase out of HCFCs alone are estimated at 12 to 18 G tonnes of CO2 equivalent.

Parties to the Montreal Protocol are considering further means to ensure that the MP promotes environmentally sound alternatives in phasing out HCFCs through a proposal to introduce a phase down scenario for the consumption of HFCs avoiding their introduction as an alternative to HCFCs. Further the Executive Committee adopted a decision to establish a carbon facility under the Multilateral Fund to provide additional support through a revolving fun to promote further climate benefits.

The side event intended to showcase a number of Montreal Protocol Projects implemented by UNIDO in cooperation with SEMARANAT in Mexico and their contribution to offsetting climate change. Specifically, the objectives of the workshop were :  To present a sample of projects that demonstrate synergies between the Montreal Protocol and the Kyoto Protocol through illustrating co-benefits related to ozone depletion and climate impact - To stimulate the development of sustainable projects incorporating environment, energy efficiency and competitiveness through engaging stakeholders of the Montreal Protocol and the Kyoto Protocol.

6th of December also marked the arrival of the Virtual Tour in Cancun, into the heart of the UN climate negotiations.


Climate Change Impacts – what the IPCC 4th Assessment Report has found:

- Replacement of tropical forest by savannas is expected in the tropical forests of central and southern Mexico, along with replacement of semi-arid by arid vegetation in most of central and northern Mexico due to synergistic effects of both land use and climate changes (medium confidence) [13.4.1].

- In tropical forests, species extinctions are likely [3.4, 13.4]. 2-18% of the mammals, 2-8% of the birds and 1-11% of the butterflies committed to extinction with temperature increase of 1.3-3°C above pre-industrial levels [Table 4.1].

- Coastal vegetated wetlands are sensitive to climate change and long-term sea-level change. Regionally losses would be most severe on the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of North and Central America, the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, the Baltic and most small island regions due to their low tidal range []






1,972,550 km2
Total Area
111,211,789 hab
Mexico City
Annual CO2 emissions
Percentage of Global Total
Trend Analysis of HCFCs
Trend Analysis of CFCs



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