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Marine Pollution Bulletin, 1977—2003
 

Articles on marine litter/debris, published in Marine Pollution Bulletin, 1977—2003

The permission to publish, free of charge, the abstracts below of articles on marine litter issues published in the Marine Pollution Bulletin, has kindly been granted the Global Marine Litter Information Gateway as a non-commercial distributor of information on the problem of marine litter worldwide. Follow the links for these abstracts, and for further information on the authors and how to obtain full text versions of the articles (please allow for some downloading time from the extensive database).

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2003

 

Region: Sea of Japan

Title: International survey on the distribution of stranded and buried litter on beaches along the Sea of Japan.

Authors: Kusui, T. / Noda, M.,

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 47, Issues 1-6, January 2003, pp. 175-179

Abstract: The distribution and abundance of marine litter on 26 beaches along the Sea of Japan were investigated from September to November 2000. The mean concentration of stranded litter in Japan and Russia was 2144 and 1344 g/100 m2, respectively. The mean number of pieces of stranded litter in Japan and Russia was 341 and 20.7/100 m2, respectively. The most abundant type of stranded litter was plastic, which accounted for 40–80 % of the total items in terms of weight and number. The mean concentration of buried litter in Japan and Russia was 9.03 and 2.70 g/m2, respectively. The total weight ratio of buried litter to stranded litter in the samples was 0.65, suggesting the significance of buried litter when evaluating the status of litter on beaches. Resin pellets were found on 12 Japanese beaches, but on none of the Russian beaches.

See also Region 16: North-West Pacific


Region: Mediterranean

Title: Floating debris in the Ligurian Sea, north-western Mediterranean

Authors: Aliani, S. / Griffa,, A. / Molcard, A.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 46, Issue 9, September 2003, pp. 1142-1149

Abstract: Results from visual sightings of large floating debris are presented, taken in the Ligurian Sea, a sub-basin of the north-western Mediterranean Sea which belongs to the recently stated "Cetacean Sanctuary". Data have been collected during three oceanographic cruises, during the summer of 1997 and 2000. Results for the 1997 data suggest a debris density of the order of 15–25 objects per sq.km, while for the 2000 data, a lower density of the order of 3–1.5 objects per sq.km is found. The difference between the two results appears statistically significant using simple tests. Possible reasons for the observed variability are discussed, including meteorological forcing, marine currents and debris input variability.

See also Region 4: Mediterranean Sea


Region: Hawaii

Title: How multiagency partnerships can successfully address large-scale pollution problems: a Hawaii case study

Authors: Donohue, M.J.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 46, Issue 6, June 2003, pp. 700-702

Abstract: Oceanic circulation patterns deposit significant amounts of marine pollution, including derelict fishing gear from North Pacific Ocean fisheries, in the Hawaiian Archipelago [Mar. Pollut. Bull. 42(12) (2001) 1301]. Management responsibility for these islands and their associated natural resources is shared by several government authorities. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and private industry also have interests in the archipelago. Since the marine debris problem in this region is too large for any single agency to manage, a multiagency marine debris working group (group) was established in 1998 to improve marine debris mitigation in Hawaii. To date, 16 federal, state, and local agencies, working with industry and NGOs, have removed 195 tons of derelict fishing gear from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This review details the evolution of the partnership, notes its challenges and rewards, and advocates its continued use as an effective resource management tool.

See also Region 20: US-Canadian Pacific


Region: South-East Pacific, off Chile

Title: Floating marine debris in coastal waters of the SE-Pacific (Chile)

Authors: Thiel, M. / Hinojosa, I. / Vasquez, N. / Macaya, E.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 46, Issue 2, February 2003, pp. 224-231

Abstract: Herein we report on the abundance and composition of floating marine debris (FMD) in coastal waters of the SE-Pacific (off the Chilean coast) during the austral summer 2002. The observed FMD consisted mainly of plastic material (86.9%). Densities of FMD were highest between 20°S and 40°S, corresponding to the main concentrations of human population and activities. Low densities of FMD were found in the south between 40°S and 50°S (<1 item km-2). Generally, the highest densities were recorded in nearshore waters of major port cities (>20 items km-2), but occasionally high concentrations of debris were also found 50 km offshore. Densities of FMD in coastal waters of the SE-Pacific are of similar magnitudes as those found in coastal waters or inland seas of highly populated regions in the northern hemisphere, indicating the need for improved regulation and legislation in the countries of the SE-Pacific.

See also Region 18: South-East Pacific


Region: Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina, South-West Atlantic

Title: The role of the Río de la Plata bottom salinity front in accumulating debris

Authors: Acha, E.M. / Mianzan, H.W. / Iribarne, O. / Gagliardini, D.A. / Lasta, C. / Daleo, P.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 46, Issue 2, February 2003, pp. 197-202

Abstract: The Río de la Plata, one of the most important South American estuarine environments, is characterized by a bottom salinity front that generates an ecotone between the river and the estuary. Based on bottom trawls and costal sampling we describe the distribution, types, and amount of debris found in the bottom and shoreline across this front. Plastics and plastic bags were the main debris types in both areas. Concentrations of total debris upriver the front were always significantly higher than downriver the front showing that the front acts as a barrier accumulating debris. Moreover, a large part of debris end ups accumulated in the coastal area upriver the frontal position. This area is particularly sensitive because the coastline encompasses an UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Reserve and a Ramsar site, and due to the ecological significance of the front for many valuable species.

See also Region 9: Upper South-West Atlantic


Region: Baja California, Mexico

Title: Quantification and classification of marine litter on the municipal beach of Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico

Authors: Silva-Iniguez, L. / Fischer, D.W.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 46, Issue 1, January 2003, pp. 132-138

Abstract: (no abstract available). "The objectives of thi study were to 1) classify and evaluate the different sorts of of litter present at the Municipal Beach of ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, during the high use season, April-August 2000; 2) evaluate spatial distributions in litter abundance and composition on the beach; and 3) identify sources of trash using selected pieces as indicators of their origin. Eventually, this information will be used to propose a 'Theoretical Model of Debris Balance', similar to the sand balance model, where the flux of litter along the beach could be forecast.

See also Region 19: North-East Pacific


2002

 

Region: North Sea, off the Netherlands

Title: Seabirds and floating plastic debris

Authors: Cadee, G.C

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 44, Issue 11, November 2002, pp. 1294-1295

Abstract: 80% of floating plastic debris freshly washed ashore on a Dutch coast showed peckmarks made by birds at sea. They either mistake these debris for cuttlebones or simply test all floating objects. Ingestion of plastic is deleterious for marine organisms. It is urgent to set measures to plastic litter production.

See also Region 3: North-East Atlantic


Region: California, U.S.

Title: A comparison of neustonic plastic and zooplankton abundance in southern California's coastal waters

Authors: Moore, C.J. / Moore, S.L. / Weisberg, S.B. / Lattin, G.L. / Zellers, A.F

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 44, Issue 10, October 2002, pp. 1035-1038

Abstract: The density of neustonic plastic particles was compared to that of zooplankton in the coastal ocean near Long Beach, California. Two trawl surveys were conducted, one after an extended dry period when there was little land-based runoff, the second shortly after a storm when runoff was extensive. On each survey, neuston samples were collected at five sites along a transect parallel to shore using a manta trawl lined with 333 µ mesh. Average plastic density during the study was 8 pieces per cubic meter, though density after the storm was seven times that prior to the storm. The mass of plastics was also higher after the storm, though the storm effect on mass was less than it was for density, reflecting a smaller average size of plastic particles after the storm. The average mass of plastic was two and a half times greater than that of plankton, and even greater after the storm. The spatial pattern of the ratio also differed before and after a storm. Before the storm, greatest plastic to plankton ratios were observed at two stations closest to shore, whereas after the storm these had the lowest ratios.

See also Region 20: US-Canadian Pacific


Region: South-West Atlantic, off Brazil

Title:Plastic debris collars on juvenile carcharhinid sharks (Rhizoprionodon lalandii) in southwest Atlantic

Authors: Sazima, I. / Gadig, O.B.F. / Namora, R.C. / Motta, F.S.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 44, Issue 10, October 2002, pp. 1149-1151

Abstract: Three juvenile Brazilian sharpnose sharks (Rhizoprionodon lalandii) caught in gillnets in southeast Brazil, southwest Atlantic, were found with plastic debris rings around their gill or mouth region. The rings caused severe abrasion on the sharks' tissues as the animal grew, the collars probably hampering normal feeding and/or ventilation since two of the collared individuals were emaciated. The rings were identified as detachable lid parts from plastic bottles, likely thrown overboard by fishery and/or recreation boats. As several carcharhinid shark species dwells and reproduce in shallow waters, the impact of discarded plastic debris likely is greater on this shark type.

See also Region 9: Upper South-West Atlantic


Region: No particular region — issue of general concern and interest

Title: The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review

Authors: Derraik, J.G.B

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 44, Issue 9, September 2002, pp. 842-852

Abstract: The deleterious effects of plastic debris on the marine environment were reviewed by bringing together most of the literature published so far on the topic. A large number of marine species is known to be harmed and/or killed by plastic debris, which could jeopardize their survival, especially since many are already endangered by other forms of anthropogenic activities. Marine animals are mostly affected through entanglement in and ingestion of plastic litter. Other less known threats include the use of plastic debris by "invader" species and the absorption of polychlorinated biphenyls from ingested plastics. Less conspicuous forms, such as plastic pellets and "scrubbers" are also hazardous. To address the problem of plastic debris in the oceans is a difficult task, and a variety of approaches are urgently required. Some of the ways to mitigate the problem are discussed.

See also Facts: Effects


Region: Gulf of Guinea, West Africa

Title: Environmental pollution in the Gulf of Guinea - a regional approach

Authors: Scheren, P.A. / Ibe, A.C. / Janssen, F.J. / Lemmens, A.M

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 44, Issue 7, July 2002, pp. 633-641

Abstract: Environmental pollution in the Gulf of Guinea (GOG) coastal zone has caused eutrophication and oxygen depletion in the lagoon systems, particularly around the urban centres, resulting in decreased fish (reproduction) levels and waterborne diseases. A pollution sources assessment was undertaken by six countries in the region as a first step in defining a region-wide Environmental Management Plan. Results show that households produce 90% of solid waste. Industry, however, is responsible for substantial amounts of hazardous waste, specifically the Nigerian petroleum industry. The latter is also responsible for the spilling of large amounts of oil. BOD load from industrial effluents is slightly larger than domestic loads in the industrialised coastal zone. Wastewater treatment systems are either absent or inadequate. Apart from large-scale gas flaring in Nigeria, air pollution, in terms of COx, HC,NOx and SO2 emissions, is contributed mainly by traffic. Particulates, originate mainly from industries and domestic biomass burning. (... "the enormous bulk of solid waste produced daily by households and industries in the coastal zone forms a serious threat to the environment"...)

See also Region 10: West and Central Africa


Region: Florida, U.S.

Title: Occurrence and biological impacts of fishing gear and other marine debris in the Florida Keys

Authors: Chiappone, M. / White, A. / Swanson, D.W. / Miller, S.L.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 44, Issue 7, July 2002, pp. 597-604

Abstract: (no abstract available) "This study addressed several issues on marin edebris occurrence in shallow-water coral reef and hard-bottom habitats. First, what is the satial extent and frequency of remnant fishing gerar at multiple spatical scales in the Florida Keys? Secondly, what factors, such as habitat type (depth) or management regime (closed or open to fishing) affect the spatial variability of marine debris occurrence? Thirdly, what are the biological impacts of marine debris, especially from remnant commerical and recreational fishing gear, on reef biota such as hard corals and sponges?"

See also Region 8: Wider Caribbean


Region: Mediterranean

Title: Marine debris ingestion in loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from the Western Mediterranean

Authors: Tomás J/ R Guitart / R Mateo / J A Raga

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 44, Issue 3, March 2002, pp. 211-216

Abstract: Marine debris represents an important threat for sea turtles, but information on this topic is scarce in some areas, such as the Mediterranean sea. This paper quantifies marine debris ingestion in 54 juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) illegally captured by fishermen in Spanish Mediterranean waters. Curved carapace length was measured, necropsies were performed and debris abundance and type was recorded. Different types of debris appeared in the gastrointestinal tract of 43 turtles (79.6%), being plastics the most frequent (75.9%). Tar, paper, Styrofoam, wood, reed, feathers, hooks, lines, and net fragments were also present. A regression analysis showed that the volume of debris increased proportionally to the size of the turtles. The high variety of debris found and the large differences in ingestion among turtles indicated low feeding discrimination of this species that makes it specially prone to debris ingestion. Our data suggest that more severe control of litter spills and greater promotion of environmental educational programmes are needed in the Western Mediterranean.

See also Region 4: Mediterranean Sea


2001

 

Region: Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

Title: Derelict Fishing Gear in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: Diving Surveys and Debris Removal in 1999 Confirm Threat to Coral Reef Ecosystems

Authors: Donohue, M.J. / Boland, R.C. / Sramek, C.M. / Antonelis, G.A.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 42, Issue 12, December 2001, pp. 1301-1312

Abstract: Marine debris threatens Northwestern Hawaiian Islands' (NWHI) coral reef ecosystems. Debris, a contaminant, entangles and kills endangered Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi), coral, and other wildlife. We describe a novel multi-agency effort using divers to systematically survey and remove derelict fishing gear from two NWHI in 1999. 14 t of derelict fishing gear were removed and debris distribution, density, type and fouling level documented at Lisianski Island and Pearl and Hermes Atoll. Reef debris density ranged from 3.4 to 62.2 items/km2. Trawl netting was the most frequent debris type encountered (88%) and represented the greatest debris component recovered by weight (35%), followed by monofilament gillnet (34%), and maritime line (23%). Most debris recovered, 72%, had light or no fouling, suggesting debris may have short oceanic circulation histories. Our study demonstrates that derelict fishing gear poses a persistent threat to the coral reef ecosystems of the Hawaiian Archipelago.

See also Region 20: US-Canadian Pacific


Region: Upper South-West Atlantic, off Brazil

Title: Marine Debris and Human Impacts on Sea Turtles in Southern Brazil

Authors: Bugoni, L. / Krause, L. / Virgnia Petry, M.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 42, Issue 12, December 2001, pp. 1330-1334

Abstract: Dead stranded sea turtles were recovered and examined to determine the impact of anthropogenic debris and fishery activities on sea turtles on the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Esophagus/stomach contents of 38 juvenile green Chelonia mydas, 10 adults and sub-adults loggerhead Caretta caretta, and two leatherback Dermochelys coriacea turtles (adult or sub-adult) included plastic bags as the main debris ingested, predominated by white and colorless pieces. The ingestion of anthropogenic debris accounted for the death of 13.2% of the green turtles examined. Signs of damage over the body and carapace indicated that fishing activities caused the death of 13.6% (3/22) of loggerheads and 1.5% (1/56) of green turtles. Therefore, it appears that direct and indirect effects of fishing activities may pose a threat to these species in Brazilian waters. Other sources of plastic debris should be investigated as well as the direct impact of fisheries, especially bottom trawl and gill nets, in order to establish effective conservation action.

See also Region 9: Upper South-West Atlantic


Region: North Sea, off Great Britain

Title: Litter Burial and Exhumation: Spatial and Temporal Distribution on a Cobble Pocket Beach

Authors: Williams, A.T. / Tudor, D.T.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 42, Issue 11, November 2001, pp. 1031-1039

Abstract: A cobble beach (-6Ø to -8Ø) located on the South Wales coastline, UK, was studied over a three-month winter period to assess litter input levels. After total beach litter clearance, six surveys were conducted at consecutive spring tides which involved marking of previously unrecorded litter. The beach was soon inundated with debris, predominantly plastic beverage containers. Some marked litter was found to disappear from the beach surface, re-emerging weeks later which suggests that the potential for litter burial has been underestimated in litter research. Higher wave energies between surveys coincided with higher levels of previously unseen litter. These new inputs consisted of sea borne and exhumed litter. Items larger than the surrounding cobbles were found to work their way back to the surface of the beach after burial, smaller items remained buried. Pits dug into the cobble ridge confirmed the burial of mainly small items.

See also Region 3: North-East Atlantic


Region: River Taff, Wales, U.K.

Title: A Statistical Riverine Litter Propagation Model

Authors: Balas, C.E. / Williams, A.T. / Simmons, S.L. / Ergin, A.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 42, Issue 11, November 2001, pp. 1169-1176

Abstract: A statistical riverine litter propagation (RLP) model based on importance sampling Monte Carlo (ISMC) simulation was developed in order to predict the frequency distribution of certain litter types in river reaches. The model was preliminarily calibrated for plastic sheeting by a pilot study conducted on the River Taff, Wales (UK). Litter movement was predominantly controlled by reach characteristics, such as vegetation overhang and watercourse obstructions. These affects were modeled in the simulations, by utilizing geometric distributions of river reaches in the time domain. The proposed model satisfactorily simulated the dosing experiments performed at the River Taff. It was concluded from the preliminary calibrations that, the RLP model can be efficiently utilized to portray litter propagation at any arbitrarily selected river site, provided that the stream flows and reach characteristics are calibrated by representative probability distributions of similar sections. Therefore, the RLP model can be considered as a new statistical technique that can predict litter propagation in river sections.

See also Region 3: North-East Atlantic


Region: Azores, North-East Atlantic

Title: Plastic Ingestion by a Leatherback Turtle Dermochelys coriacea from the Azores (NE Atlantic)

Authors: Barreiros, J.P. / Barcelos, J.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 42, Issue 11, November 2001, pp. 1196-1197

Abstract: Correspondence

See also Region 3: North-East Atlantic


Region: Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles

Title: Baseline Study of Submerged Marine Debris at Beaches in Curaçao, West Indies

Authors: Nagelkerken, I. / Wiltjer, G.A.M.T. / Debrot, A.O. / Pors, L.P.J.J.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 42, Issue 9, September 2001, pp. 786-789

Abstract: Correspondence

See also Region 8: Wider Caribbean


Region: Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

Title: A Pre- and Post-MARPOL Annex V Summary of Hawaiian Monk Seal Entanglements and Marine Debris Accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1982-1998

Authors: Henderson, J.R

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 42, Issue 7, July 2001, pp. 584-589

Abstract: Entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals, Monachus schauinslandi, were documented in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) from 1982 to 1998, and debris which presented a threat of entanglement was inventoried and removed from 1987 to 1996. A total of 173 entanglements was documented. The number of entanglements did not change after implementation of MARPOL Annex V in 1989. Pups and juvenile seals were more likely to become entangled than older seals, and became entangled primarily in nets, whereas entanglement of subadults and adults was more likely to involve line. The subpopulation of seals at Lisianski Island experienced the most entanglements, although Lisianski did not accumulate the most debris. Localized high entanglement rates may gravely affect individual monk seal subpopulations. Accumulation of debris has not diminished since implementation of Annex V, nor has occurrence of derelict drift nets abated since a 1989 moratorium. Debris washing ashore has likely been circulating in the North Pacific Ocean for some time.

See also Region 20: US-Canadian Pacific


Region: California, U.S.

Title: Composition and Distribution of Beach Debris in Orange County, California

Authors: Moore, S.L. / Gregorio, D. / Carreon, M. / Weisberg, S.B. / Leecaster, M.K

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 42, Issue 3, March 2001, pp. 241-245

Abstract: Many studies have quantified debris collected on beaches around the world. Only a few of those studies have been conducted in the United States, and they are largely limited to semi-quantitative efforts performed as part of volunteer clean-up activities. This study quantifies the distribution and composition of beach debris by sampling 43 stratified random sites on the Orange County, California coast, from August to September 1998. We estimated that approximately 106 million items, weighing 12 metric tons, occur on Orange County beaches. The most abundant items were pre-production plastic pellets, foamed plastics, and hard plastics. Debris density on the remote rocky shoreline was greater than that on high-use sandy beaches for most debris items. This finding partially reflects the periodic clean-up of high-use beaches by local municipalities, and also indicates that a high percentage of the observed debris was transported to the site from waterborne sources.

See also Region 20: US-Canadian Pacific


2000

 

Region: California, U.S.

Title: Entanglement of Pinnipeds in Synthetic Materials at South-east Farallon Island, California, 1976-1998

Authors: Hanni, K.D. / Pyle, P.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 40, Issue 12, December 2000, pp. 1076-1081

Abstract: Entanglement records of hauled out pinnipeds are useful for monitoring trends in impacts of synthetic materials, a principal contaminant, upon pinniped populations. This report documents entanglement of five species (California Sea Lions, Northern Elephant Seals, Steller Sea Lions, Pacific Harbor Seals, and Northern Fur Seals) at South-east Farallon Island (SEFI), an island in Northern California, 1976–1998, when a total of 914 pinnipeds were observed entangled in or with body constrictions from synthetic material. There was a significant decrease in entangled Northern Elephant Seals over the study period. Of the 27 Steller Sea Lions observed entangled, 37% were adult Steller Sea Lions entangled in salmon fishing gear. This report highlights an ongoing problem of entanglement of pinnipeds in synthetic materials in Northern California.

See also Region 20: US-Canadian Pacific


Region: Canada, North-West Atlantic

Title: Ingestion of Plastic and Unusual Prey by a Juvenile Harbour Porpoise

Authors: Baird, R.W. / Hooker1, S.K

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 40, Issue 8, August 2000, pp. 719-720

Abstract: Correspondence

See also Region 7: North-West Atlantic


Region: Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic Sea, Celtic Sea, Bay of Biscay

Title: Litter on the Sea Floor Along European Coasts

Authors: Galgani, F. / Leaute, J.P. / Moguedet, P. / Souplet, A. / Verin, Y. / Carpentier, A. / Goraguer, H. /Latrouite, D. / Andral, B. / Cadiou, Y.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 40, Issue 6, June 2000, pp. 516-527

Abstract: The distribution and abundance of large marine debris were investigated on continental shelves and slopes along European Seas, including the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the Celtic Sea, the Bay of Biscay and different areas in the north-western basin of the Mediterranean Sea and the Adriatic Sea. On the basis of 27 oceanographic cruises undertaken between November 1992 and August 1998, different types of debris were enumerated, particularly pieces of plastic, plastic and glass bottles, metallic objects, glass, and diverse materials including fishing gear. The results showed considerable geographical variation in concentrations, which ranged from 0 to 101 000 pieces of debris per km2. In most stations sampled, plastic (mainly bags and bottles) accounted for a very high percentage (more than 70%) of total number of debris, and accumulation of specific debris, such as fishing gear, was also common. In some areas, only small amounts of debris were collected on the continental shelf, mostly in canyons descending from the continental slope and in the bathyal plain where high amounts were found down to more than 500 m. Dives using the manned submersibles Cyana and Nautile between 50 and 2700 m allowed accumulation areas to be detected on the sea floor. Analysis of these results revealed the influence of geomorphologic factors, local anthropic activities and river inputs. Temporal trends indicated a stable situation in the Gulf of Lion and seasonal variations in the northern part of the Bay of Biscay. Accumulation areas were detected 200 km west of Denmark, in the southern part of the Celtic Sea and along the south-east coast of France.

See also Regions 2 and 3: Baltic Sea and North-East Atlantic


Region: California Bight, U.S.

Title: Distribution of Anthropogenic and Natural Debris on the Mainland Shelf of the Southern California Bight

Authors: Moore, S.L. / Allen, M.J

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 40, Issue 1, January 2000, pp. 83-88

Abstract: Various studies have been conducted to quantify debris found along beaches; however, little information has been compiled about debris found on the seafloor. This study describes the distribution, types, and amounts of marine debris found in the Southern California Bight (SCB) in July and August of 1994. Anthropogenic debris was most common in the central region, on the outer shelf, and in areas near publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). Fishing gear was the most common type of anthropogenic debris in the central region and in the outer shelf zone, whereas glass bottles and plastic were most common in POTW areas. Natural debris was more common close to shore in the inner shelf zone than anthropogenic debris. The deeper distribution of anthropogenic debris relative to natural debris, as well as the types of debris, suggest that the primary source of anthropogenic debris is marine vessel and fishing activity.

See also Region 20: US-Canadian Pacific


1999

 

Region: No particular region — issue of general concern and interest

Title: Beach Litter Sampling Strategies: is there a 'Best' Method?

Authors: Velander, K. / Mocogni, M.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 38, Issue 12, December 1999, pp. 1134-1140

Abstract: Ten methods for sampling beach litter were tested on 16 beaches located around the Firth of Forth, Scotland in order to ascertain the effectiveness of the various methods. Both fresh and/or accumulated litter were sampled. Some methods were more effective for recording gross amounts of litter. Maximum litter counts could be obtained by surveying the top boundary of the beach (e.g. vegetation line, retaining wall, rocks). Lowest amounts were obtained by surveying one five metre wide belt transect from the vegetation line to the shore. Some bias towards highlighting particular litter types was shown by specific methods. It was concluded that there were advantages and disadvantages for each method and that the aims of the study would in the end determine the method.

See also OSPAR Pilot Project on Monitoring Marine Beach Litter


Region: Alaska, Kodiak Island

Title: Benthic Marine Debris, with an Emphasis on Fishery-Related Items, Surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994-1996

Authors: Hess, N.A. / Ribic, C.A. / Vining, I.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 38, Issue 10, October 1999, pp. 885-890

Abstract: Composition and abundance of benthic marine debris were investigated during three bottom trawl surveys in inlet and offshore locations surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994–1996. Debris items were primarily plastic and metal regardless of trawl location. Plastic bait jars, fishing line, and crab pots were the most common fishery-related debris items and were encountered in large amounts in inlets (20–25 items km-2), but were less abundant outside of inlets (4.5–11 items km-2). Overall density of debris was also significantly greater in inlets than outside of inlets. Plastic debris densities in inlets ranged 22–31.5 items km-2, 7.8–18.8 items km-2 outside of inlets. Trawls in inlets contained almost as much metal debris as plastic debris. Density of metal debris ranged from 21.2 to 23.7 items km-2 in inlets, a maximum of 2.7 items km-2 outside of inlets. Inlets around the town of Kodiak had the highest densities of fishery-related and total benthic debris. Differences in benthic debris density between inlets and outside of inlets and differences by area may be due to differences in fishing activity and water circulation patterns. At the current reduced levels of fishing activity, however, yearly monitoring of benthic debris appears unnecessary.

See also Region 20: US-Canadian Pacific


Region: Southern Caribbean

Title: Beach Debris in Curaçao

Authors: Debrot, A.O. / Tiel, A.B. / Bradshaw, J.E

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 38, Issue 9, September 1999, pp. 795-801

Abstract: Data on beach debris contamination is provided for 10 pocket beaches in Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Non-overlapping transects were sampled in December 1992 and October 1993, and a total of 8486 debris items were recorded. Accumulated debris contamination was especially high on the pocket beaches of the windward north-east coast where debris concentrations ranged from 19 to 253 items m-1 and from 1.7 to 11.8 kg m-1 of beach front. Corresponding (geometric) mean contamination levels (followed by approx. 70% confidence intervals) were 60 (23–157) items m-1 and 4.5 (2.0–10.1) kg m-1, which appear quite high by comparison to other studies in the Caribbean. Contamination levels for leeward south-west coast beaches were generally one or two orders of magnitude less. The high levels of contamination on windward beaches is likely at least partially due to the herding of debris into these beaches. While plastic and wood were the principal debris components on both windward and leeward beaches, several notable differences were found between windward and leeward beaches in terms of debris size, material type, country of origin and the type of items collected. Results indicate regional sources of debris as being of major importance on windward beaches and local recreational activity as being a significant source of debris for leeward beaches.

See also Region 8: Wider Caribbean


Region: Mediterranean

Title: Marine Debris on the Seafloor of the Mediterranean Sea: Examples from Two Enclosed Gulfs in Western Greece

Authors: Stefatos, A. / Charalampakis, M. / Papatheodorou, G. / Ferentinos, G.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 38, Issue 5, May 1999, pp. 389-393

Abstract: During two daylong surveys aboard fishing boats, one in Patras Gulf and the other in Echinadhes Gulf, marine debris retained in the trawl nets was examined. The marine debris concentration on the seafloor of Patras and Echinadhes Gulfs is 240 and 89 items/km2, respectively. The most abundant debris is plastic followed by metal. The high percentage of beverage packaging in Echinadhes Gulf is attributed to shipping traffic, whilst the high percentage of general packaging in Patras Gulf suggests that the source of this material may be on land and it is transported into the gulf by rivers and seasonal streams.

See also Region 4: Mediterranean Sea


Region: Alaska

Title: Fate of Radio-tagged Trawl Web on an Alaskan Beach

Authors: Johnson, S.W. / Eiler, J.H

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 38, Issue 2, February 1999, pp. 136-141

Abstract: Thirty-five fragments of trawl web were radio-tagged on Kayak Island, Alaska, to determine their fate once stranded ashore. Tagged fragments placed in the immediate study area were monitored daily by a remote tracking station (RTS) from August 1994 to May 1995. Ground and aerial surveys in June 1995 located fragments that had moved out of the reception range of the RTS. Of the 35 tagged fragments, 18 (51%) remained on Kayak Island, whereas the whereabouts of 17 (49%) fragments were undetermined. Most fragments not relocated were lost during severe fall storms. Tagged fragments that remained on Kayak Island moved an average of 2.0 km from their original tagging location. Fragments not relocated were smaller ( = 1.25 kg) than those found ( = 6.28 kg). Missing fragments were likely washed back to sea. To reduce entanglement hazards to marine life, stranded trawl web should be removed from beaches during clean-ups to prevent possible reentry into the ocean.

See also Region 20: US-Canadian Pacific


1998

 

Region: North-West Atlantic, New Jersey, U.S.

Title: Use of Indicator Items to Monitor Marine Debris on a New Jersey Beach from 1991 to 1996

Authors: Ribic, C.A

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 36, Issue 11, November 1998, pp. 887-891

Abstract: The US National Marine Debris Monitoring Program is using indicator items from beach surveys to identify whether amounts of marine debris are changing over time. Indicator items were selected through expert opinion and assumed to reflect the trend of all debris. We used monthly data from a 1991-1996 study of debris on a New Jersey beach to determine if indicator and non-indicator items showed similar trends. Total indicator debris levels did not change; this was true regardless of probable source. Non-indicator debris increased about 40% annually. Plastic non-indicator items increased regardless of whether items were whole items, cigarette filters, or pieces. Of the whole items, almost 50% were plastic lids, cups, and utensils, and about 25% were drug-related paraphernalia, tobacco-related products, plastic stirrers, pull rings, and fireworks. When indicator items are used in a monitoring programme to reflect total debris patterns, concordance of trends in indicator and non-indicator debris should be checked.

See also Region 7: North-West Atlantic


Region: East Asian Seas, Northern Australia

Title: Types and Sources of Marine Debris in Fog Bay, Northern Australia

Authors: Whiting, S.D.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 36, Issue 11, November 1998, pp. 904-910

Abstract: Marine debris items were collected and categorized during surveys of beaches in Fog Bay, northern Australia in 1996 and 1997. Synthetic items (45%) were the most numerous followed by metal (35%) and glass (16%). Drink containers contributed 53% of the total items, while fishing gear and foreign material contributed only 4% and 3%, respectively. Scores were given to each possible source of marine debris according to their likelihood of contributing to each group of debris items. Using this method, commercial fishing, merchant shipping and recreational boaters were likely to contribute to over 85% of all debris items. Composition of debris items varied between beach orientation within the same year and within beach orientation between years, which suggests that a number of beaches and locations should be sampled to obtain an unbiased estimate of marine debris for annual comparisons.

See also Region 15: East Asian Seas


Region: North Sea

Title: Maritime Litter and Sewage Contamination at Cramond Beach Edinburgh -- a Comparative Study

Authors: Velander, K.A. / Mocogni, M.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 36, Issue 5, May 1998, pp. 385-389

Abstract: Beach litter was monitored between April and October 1994 at Cramond Beach, Edinburgh. When compared with data collected over the same period in 1984, it was found that overall there was a twofold increase in litter, although the proportion of items found in some categories had decreased (containers, confectionery and crisp wrappers, clothing, fishing line, fishing net, shotgun cartridges, metal, cardboard and paper). Increases occurred in plastic fragments, plastic bags/sheeting, glass fragments, wood, rope, wire and `other'. In addition, in 1994 sewage-related debris was included as a separate category, owing to the large increase in these items. In 1984 they were so infrequent that when found were classified as `other', while in 1994 they composed an average of 14% of all litter found. It was concluded that beach cleanliness and, in particular, the presence of untreated sewage should be of national concern. Actions should be taken to reduce the amount of litter and stop raw sewage reaching the Firth of Forth, both by raising public awareness and by investment in the proper technology to improve current treatment measures.

See also Region 3: North-East Atlantic


1997

 

Region: South Africa

Title: Spatial and Temporal Variations in Beach Litter on the Transkei Coast of South Africa

Authors: Madzena, A. / Lasiak, T.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 34, Issue 11, November 1997, pp. 900-907

Abstract: The quantity and composition of litter found along an undeveloped coastline in South Africa are described. Small to medium-scale spatial variations in debris deposited over an unknown period on three beaches at two localities were examined. The mean counts and weights of the litter accumulated varied from 19.6 to 72.5 items and from 42.8-164.1 g m-1 of shore, respectively. Significant differences in counts were evident amongst areas-within-shores, but not amongst shores-within-locations nor between locations. Plastics accounted for ca 83% of the total counts and ca 47% of the total weight. Popular tourist beaches had the widest range of litter types. Temporal differences in the accumulation of newly-deposited debris were also assessed. Mean monthly estimates varied from 1.4 to 9.8 new items and from 3.4-25.0 g m-1 of shore. The composition of the newly-deposited litter was similar to that accumulated over an unspecified time period. Difficulties in comparing studies are highlighted in the discussion.

See also Region 11: Eastern Africa


Region: Gulf of Mexico

Title: Floating Marine Debris in the US Gulf of Mexico

Authors: Lecke-Mitchell, K.M. / Mullin, K. (National Marine Fisheries Service,)

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 34, Issue 9, September 1997, pp. 702-705

Abstract: No abstract available online

See also Region 8: Wider Caribbean


Region: South Pacific, Southern Australia

Title: Marine Debris on Northern New South Wales Beaches (Australia): Sources and the Role of Beach Usage

Authors: Frost, A. / Cullen, M

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 34, Issue 5, May 1997, pp. 348-352

Abstract: No abstract available online

See also Region 17: South Pacific


Region: South Pacific, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

Title: Marine Debris on Continental Islands and Sand Cays in the Far Northern Section of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia

Authors: Haynes, D.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 34, Issue 4, April 1997, pp. 276-279

Abstract: No abstract availalbe online

See also Region 17: South Pacific


Region: No particular region — issue of general concern and interest

Title: Potential Effects of Discarded Triton ™ Paperboard Six-pack Carriers on Fish and Wildlife

Authors: Thompson, M.E. / Cote, W.A.(Woodlot Alternatives Inc,. International Paper Company)

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 34, Issue 2, February 1997, pp. 135-137

Abstract: No abstract availalbe online (index terms: sea pollution; solid waste; environmental monitoring; wildlife)

See also Facts: What & where?


Region: Antarctica

Title: Marine Debris Surveys at Bird Island, South Georgia 1990-1995

Authors: Walker, T.R. / Reid, K. / Arnould, J.P.Y. / Croxall, J.P

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 34, Issue 1, January 1997, pp. 61-65

Abstract: The Antarctic marine environment has relatively few direct sources of man-made marine debris; however, there is concern over the dangers posed to wildlife by increasing amounts of such debris. Between 1990 and 1995 beached debris was monitored at Bird Island, South Georgia. This was part of a programme developed by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) to monitor compliance with waste disposal under MARPOL and the effectiveness of additional regulations to reduce entanglement of marine mammals and birds. Overall, and in all but one year, the highest incidence of debris occurred during the winter months when 75% of all items were collected. The most numerous category overall (76%), and in all samples since 1991, was pieces of synthetic line as used in the long-line fishery for the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides around South Georgia. Packaging bands (6%) and polythene bags (6%) were the next commonest items. There was a substantial increase in the number of items found ashore in 1995 which coincided with an apparent increase in the long-line fishing effort in the area. The increase in the incidence of synthetic line found ashore corresponds to the increase in the proportion of Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella entangled in this material at South Georgia in a parallel study. An increasing use of environmentally-aware scientific observers on all fishing vessels, leading to an increased awareness of existing legislation, should result in less man-made debris entering the marine environment in the area around South Georgia.

See also Region 21: Antarctica


1996

 

Region: North-East Atlantic

Title: Tar Pellets and Plastics as Attachment Surfaces for Lepadid Cirripedes in the North Atlantic Ocean

Authors: Minchin, D.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 32, Issue 12, December 1996, pp. 855-859

Abstract: The stalked barnacle, Dosima fascicularis, attaches to small particles of floating debris at settlement, its buoyancy is maintained by secretion of a gas filled float. Tar pellets <25 mm diameter and angular plastic fragments were the main attachment materials. Lepas pectinata attached to similar materials but of larger size, this species does not produce a float. Both species could be stranded on Irish coasts with tropical seeds, pumice or other oceanic organisms and frequently with plastics, some of these originating in North America. Early museum material in Britain and Ireland suggest tar pellets as a substratum for D. fascicularis were uncommon or rare. The preponderance of cirripedes on tar (63%) and plastics (21%) over the period 1986 to 1988 suggest a population expansion through an increase of available substrata of correct particle size. Dosima fascicularis, considered to be rare in Irish waters in previous years, may have been under-reported. This could be due to their rapid decay once stranded.

See also Region 3: North-East Atlantic


Region: No particular region — issue of general concern and interest

Title: Power Analysis for Beach Surveys of Marine Debris

Authors: Ribic, C.A. / Ganio, L.M.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 32, Issue 7, July 1996, pp. 554-557

Abstract: In the US, a monitoring programme is being planned to evaluate national trends in beach litter. Power analysis was used to determine if the programme had a high probability of detecting a specified effect. We compared the use of a repeated measures model and a one-way analysis of variance model to investigate the power of detecting a 20% linear decrease in litter on beaches over a 5-year period, with power of 0.84 or more, a Type I error rate of 0.05, and quarterly sampling. We used the average coefficient of variation and, for the repeated measures model, average autocorrelations as estimates of model parameters. Common debris items typically had positive autocorrelations and use of the repeated measures model produced sample size estimates smaller than those from the analysis of variance model. Sample size estimates critically depend on reliable estimates of the mean, variance, and covariance of debris items of interest.

See also OSPAR Pilot Project on Monitoring Marine Beach Litter


Region: East Asian Seas, Afura and Timor Seas

Title: Marine Pollution in the Arafura and Timor Seas

Authors: Morrison, R.J. / Delaney, J.R.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 32, Issue 4, April 1996, pp. 327-334

Abstract: The management of the Arafura and Timor Seas, which form a major part of the maritime boundary between Australia and Indonesia, is of significant economic and environmental importance to both countries. Information available indicates that much of the marine environment in the region is in near pristine condition. Increasing pressure is being placed on this environment through expanding shipping and fishing activity, urban and industrial development including mining, port expansion, oil and gas exploration and production, changing land use in catchments, and tourism. These activities are affecting water and sediment quality, habitats and marine biodiversity. This paper review the available information on marine pollution in the Arafura and Timor Seas, including assessments based on physical, social and economic features of the region. A number of proposals for maintaining the high quality of this environment are presented, including a well planned monitoring program covering key points in the region and an expanded oceanographic information base which would provide an early indication of changing pollution conditions.

See also Region 15: East Asian Seas


1995

 

Region: Antarctica

Title: Trends in Entanglement of Antarctic Fur Seals (Arctocephalus gazella) in Man-Made Debris at South Georgia

Authors: Arnould, J.P.Y. / Croxall, J.P.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 30, Issue 11, November 1995, pp. 707-712

Abstract: A study conducted at South Georgia in 1988/1989 indicated that several thousand Antarctic fur seals were entangled mainly in man-made material originating from fishing vessels. Consequently, the authority responsible for the management of Southern Ocean marine resources (CCAMLR) actively campaigned for compliance with the MARPOL provisions relating to waste disposal at sea, and for cutting of any material unavoidably jettisoned which could form collars to entangle seals. Five subsequent years of recording entangled fur seals confirms that entanglement is a persistent problem, although its incidence has been halved in recent years. However, the South Georgia fur seal population has approximately doubled in the same period, so that the overall total of animals entangled may even have increased. Nevertheless, because most seals entangled are juvenile males, the current rate of entanglement will have negligible effects on the reproductive rate of the South Georgia population, especially in relation to its current rate of population increase. The reduction in observed entanglement incidence cannot be attributed mainly to improved waste disposal practices because it has coincided with substantial reductions in fishing activity around South Georgia. However, the particular reduction in entanglement due to packing bands and the fact that all such bands washed ashore over the last 2 years have been cut, does suggest a general improvement in standards of waste disposal on Southern Ocean fishing vessels.

See also Region 21: Antarctica


Region: Mediterranean

Title: Distribution and Abundance of Debris on the Continental Shelf of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea

Authors: Galgani, F. / Jaunet, S. / Campillo, A. / Guenegen, X. / His, E.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 30, Issue 11, November 1995, pp. 713-717

Abstract: The distribution and abundance of marine debris were investigated on the continental shelf of the north-western Mediterranean Sea during three oceanographic cruises undertaken between November 1993 and July 1994. The debris included pieces of plastic, plastic and glass bottles, metallic objects, glass and fishing gear. The results showed peak abundance in areas off metropolitan areas. Concentrations of more than 200 pieces of debris ha-1 were found around Marseille. In most of the stations sampled, plastic bags accounted for more than 90% of total debris. In the Gulf of Lion, most of the debris was found in submarine canyons to a depth of 700 m. The results are interpreted in terms of hydrological conditions.

See also Region 4: Mediterranean Sea


Region: North-East Atlantic, Bay of Biscay, Seine Bay

Title: Distribution and Abundance of Debris on the Continental Shelf of the Bay of Biscay and in Seine Bay

Authors: Galgani, F. / Burgeot, T. / Bocquene, G. / Vincent, F. / Leaute, J.P. / Labastie, J. / Forest, A. /Guichet, R.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 30, Issue 1, January 1995, pp. 58-62

Abstract: The distribution and abundance of larger marine debris were investigated on the continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay and in Seine Bay during six oceanographic cruises undertaken from November 1992 to September 1993. Different types of debris were enumerated, particularly plastic bags and bottles, other plastic objects, metallic objects, glass and diverse materials including fishing gear. The results showed considerable annual and geographical variation in the Bay of Biscay, with peak abundance at the end of winter in an area off the Gironde Estuary where concentrations reached 14 debris per hectare. In all stations sampled, plastic bags accounted for a very high percentage (up to 95% or more) of total debris. In Seine Bay, only small amounts of debris were collected. All these results are interpreted with respect to hydrological conditions.

See also Region 3: North-East Atlantic


Region: No particular region — issue of general concern and interest

Title: Marine Litter Monitoring Programmes — A Review of Methods with Special Reference to National Surveys

Authors: Rees, G. / Pond, K.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 30, Issue 2, February 1995, pp. 103-108

Abstract: Monitoring of marine debris has been undertaken around the world for several years. Its purposes are as follows. 1. To provide information on the types, quantities and distribution of marine debris. 2. To provide an insight into problems and threats associated with an area. 3. To assess the effectiveness of appropriate legislation and coastal management policies. 4. To identify source of marine debris. 5. To explore public health issues relating to marine debries. 6. To increase public awareness of the condition of the coastline. Three main methods have been described, each with variations. This paper provides an overview of the approaches, the advantages and disadvantages and describes the method used by what is the largest current monitoring programme in the UK. It is concluded that no standard technique can be universally employed for monitoring studies but that the use of volunteers is essential to achieve a large-scale survey. The use of volunteers has the added advantages of capitalizing on local knowledge of the coastline being surveyed and directly involving the public in coastal management issues.

See also OSPAR Pilot Project on Monitoring Marine Beach Litter


Region: South Pacific, Tasmania, Australia

Title: Fishing Debris in the Australian Marine Environment

Authors: Jones, M.M.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 30, Issue 1, January 1995, pp. 25-33

Abstract: The loss and disposal of fishing gear has been recognized internationally as a major environmental issue for several decades. This paper reviews the available data on fishing debris in the Australian marine environment. In some regions debris from deep-water trawl, longline and rock lobster fisheries has harmed marine wildlife and littered beaches. The highest documented incidence of wildlife entanglement by fishing debris is for the Australian fur seal in Bass Strait and off southern Tasmania, where over the period 1989-1993 approximately 1.5-2% of seals were found with neck collars. Data collected by Australian observers on board foreign vessels fishing within the Australian Fishing Zone, indicate that in 1992 and 1993 at least one-third of these vessels did not comply with the MARPOL regulations on the disposal of plastics. Approaches used to reduce debris have included education programmes, development of plastic-free gear, and clean-up programmes.

See also Region 17: South Pacific


Region: Mediterranean

Title: Litter at the bottom of the sea: A sea bed survey in the Eastern Mediterranean

Authors: Galil, B.S. / Golik, A. / Turkay, M.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 30, Issue 1, January 1995, pp. 22-24

Abstract: During a month-long cruise of the Eastern Mediterranean in the spring of 1993, litter retained in a beam trawl net, employed to sample benthic fauna, was collected. The litter composition, its distribution and abundance were recorded. Though the disposal of all litter except food waste is prohibited in the Mediterranean, this study presents evidence that these regulations are ignored and that vessel-generated refuse is a major source of litter into the marine environment.

See also Region 4: Mediterranean


1994

 

Region: Florida

Title: Ingestion of marine debris by juvenile sea turtles in coastal Florida.

Authors: Bjomdal, K.A., Bolten, A.B. and Lageux, C.J.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 28, 1994, pp. 154-158.

Region: Alaska

Title: Deposition of trawl web on an Alaska beach after implementation of MARPOL Annex V legislation.

Author: Johnson, S.W.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 28, 1994, pp. 477-481.


1993

 

Region: Wider Caribbean (Panama)

Title: Marine debris along the Caribbean coast of Panama

Authors: Garrity. S.D. and Levings, S.C.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 26, 1993, pp. 317-324.

See also Region 8: Wider Caribbean


Region: Wider Caribbean (St. Lucia and Dominica)

Title: Marine debris contamination of beaches in St. Lucia and Dominica

Authors: Corbin, C.J. and Singh, J.G.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 26, 1993, pp. 325-328.

See also Region 8: Wider Caribbean


1992

 

Region: Northwest Atlantic (Nova Scotia)

Title: Monitoring persistent litter in the marine environment on Sable Island, Nova Scotia

Author: Lucas, Z.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 24, 1992, pp. 192-199.

See also Region 7: Northwest Atlantic


Region: North American waters

Title: Marine vessel debris – a North American perspective.

Author:Pemberton, D., Broters, N.P. and Kirkwood, R.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 24, 1992, pp. 586-592.


1991

 

Region: Mediterranean

Title: Man-made garbage pollution on the Mediterranean coastline.

Authors: Gabrielides, G.P. / Golic. A. / Loizides, L. / Marino, M. / Bingel, F. / Torregrossa, M.V.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 23, 1991, pp. 437-441.

See also Region 4: Mediterranean Sea


Region: Florida

Title: The impact of debris on the Florida Manatee

Authors: Beck. C.A and Barros, N.B.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 22, 1991, pp. 508-510.

See also Region 8: Wider Caribbean


Region: Northwest Atlantic

Title:A survey of shoreline litter in Halifax Harbour.

Authors: Ross, J.G., Parker, R. and Strickland, M.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 22, 1991, pp. 245-248.

See also Region 7: Northwest Atlantic


1980-1988

 

Region:South Atlantic

Title: Plastic debris in the surface waters of the South Atlantic.

Author: Morris, R.J.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 11, 1980, pp. 164-166.

Region: North Sea

Title: Marine litter surveillance.

Authors: Dixon, T.R. and Dixon, T.J.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 12, 1981, pp. 289-295.

See also Region 3: North-East Atlantic


Region: Mediterranean

Title: Plastic pellets on Spains "Costa del Sol" beaches.

Authors: Shiber, J.G.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 13, 1982, pp. 409-412.

See also Region 4: Mediterranean Sea


Region: North Sea

Title: Marine litter distribution and composition in the North Sea

Authors: Dixon, T.R. and Dixon, T.J.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 14, 1983, pp. 145-148.

See also Region 3: North-East Atlantic


Region: Mediterranean

Title: Plastic pellets and tar on Spain's Mediterranean beaches.

Authors: Shiber, J.G.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 18, 1987, pp. 84-86.

See also Region 4: Mediterranean Sea


Region: general

Title: Sources, quantities and distribution of persistent plastics in the marine environment.

Author: Pruter, A.T.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 18, 1987, pp. 305-310.

See also Facts: Sources


Region: general

Title:Overview of the biological effect of lost and discarded plastic debris in the marine environment.

Authors: Laist, D.W.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 18 (6B), 1987, pp. 319-326.

See also Facts: Effects


Region: U.S.-Canadian pacific, Hawaiian Islands

Title: Ingestion of plastic debris by Laysan Albatrosses and Wedge-tailed Shearwaters in the Hawaiian Islands.

Authors: Fry, D.M., Fefer, S.I., and Sileo, L.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 18, 1987, pp. 339-343.

See also Region 20: US-Canadian Pacific


Region: general

Title: Impact of non-degradable marine debris on the ecology and survival outlook of sea turtles.

Authors: Carr, A.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 18, 1987, pp. 352-356.

See also Facts: Effects.


Region: general

Title: Legal strategies for reducing persistent plastics in the marine environment.

Authors: Bean, M.J.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 18, 1987, pp. 357-360.

See also Facts: Measures


Region: general

Title: Plastics in the marine environment: legal approaches for international action.

Author: Lentz, S.A.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 18, 1987, pp. 361-365.

See also Facts: Measures


Region: Mediterranean

Title: Floating megalitter in the eastern Mediterranean.

Author: McCoy, F.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 19, 1988, pp. 25-28.

See also Region 4: Mediterranean Sea


1977-1979

 

Region: North Sea

Title: Discarded containers on a Kent beach.

Authors: Dixon, T.R. and Cooke, A.J.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 8, 1977, pp. 105-109.

See also Region 3: North-East Atlantic


Region: Mediterranean

Title: Plastic pellets on the coast of Lebanon.

Authors: Shiber, J.G.

Issue: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 10, 1979, pp. 28-30.

See also Region 4: Mediterranean Sea