United Nations Environment Programme
environment for development
 Marine Litter Search 
Home
About
UNEP Initiatives
Other Programmes
Publications & References
Articles & Reports
Marine Pollution Bulletin
Photo Gallery
References
Workshop Proceedings
Contact Us
Related Links

 

 
 

References
 

  • Acha, E.M., Mianzan, H.W., Iribarne, O., Gagliardini, D.A, Lasta, C., and Daleo, P. (2003): The role of the Río de la Plata bottom salinity front in accumulating debris. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 46, pp. 197-202
  • Derraik J.G.B.: The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44 (2002) 842–852.
  • Donohue, M.J., Boland, R.C., Sramek, C.M., Antonelis, G.A. (2001): Derelict Fishing Gear in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: Diving Surveys and Debris Removal in 1999 Confirmed Threat to Coral Reef Ecosystems. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 42, pp. 1301-1312
  • GESAMP (2001): Protecting the Oceans from Land-based Activities. GESAMP Reports and Studies No. 71. UNEP 2001.
  • Henderson, J.R (2001): A Pre- and Post-MARPOL Annex V Summary of Hawaiian Monk Seal Entanglements and Marine Debris Accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1982- 1998. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 42, pp. 584-589
  • Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo, Daniel Torres N. and Verónica Vallejos M. (1997): Entanglement of Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazella, in marine debris at Capa Shirreff and San Telmo Islets, Livingston Island, Antarctica: 1988-1997". Presented to the CCAMLR Scientific Committee in 1997. Published by Instituto Antártico Chileno (INACH) in its Serie Científica 1997 (Ser. Cient. INACH 47:123-135, 1997).
  • Global Marine Litter Information Gateway: http://marine-litter.google-gpa. A node of the UNEP/GPA Clearing-House Mechanism.
  • Kiessling, I. (2003): Finding Solutions to Derelict Fishing Gear and Other Marine Debris in Northern Australia. Key Centre for Tropical Wildlife Management, Charles Darwin University, National Oceans Office and the Department of Environment and Heritage, Australia.
  • Y. H. Marin, L.C. Barea and J.F.Chocca (2003): Register of entangled fishes with plastic debris during F/V Top Flight and Lerez surveys in the Southwest Atlantic. Dirección Nacional de Recursos Acuáticos, Montevideo, Uruguay.
  • Yukie Mato, Tomohiko Isobe, Hideshige Takada, Haruyuki Kanehiro, Chiyoko Ohtake, and Tsuguchika Kaminuma (2001): Plastic Resin Pellets as a Transport Medium for Toxic Chemicals in the Marine Environment. Science & Technology 35, pp. 318-324
  • Thompson, R. C., Olsen, Y., Mitchell, R. P., Davies, A., Rowland, S. J.. John, A.W.G., McGonigle, D., and Russell. A.E. (2004): Lost at Sea: Where is all the Plastic? Science, 7 May 2004 (vol. 304, p. 838).
  • Moore, C.J. (2002): Out in the Pacific, Plastic is Getting Drastic (The World's Largest Landfill is in the Middle of the Ocean). Algalita Marine Research Foundation.
  • Moore, C.J., Moore, M,, Leecaster, K., and Weisberg, S.B. (2001): A comparison of Plastic and Plankton in the North Pacific Central Gyre. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42, pp. 1297–1300 Moore, C.J., Moore, S.L., Weisberg, S.B., Lattin, G.L., and Zellers, A.F (2002): A comparison of neustonic plastic and zooplankton abundance in southern California's coastal waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 44, pp. 1035-1038
  • Proceedings from the 4th International Marine Debris Conference on Derelict Fishing Gear and the Marine Environment. Honolulu, Hawaii, August 6–11, 2000. http://www.hihwnms.nos.noaa.gov/special_offerings/sp_off_imdc/proceedings.html
  • Report from the APEC seminar Derelict Fishing Gear and Related Marine Debris. Honolulu, Hawaii, January 2004. Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, APEC.
  • Ribic, C.A (1998): Use of Indicator Items to Monitor Marine Debris on a New Jersey Beach from 1991 to 1996. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 36, pp. 887-891
  • Velander, K., and Mocogni, M.(1999) Beach Litter Sampling Strategies: is there a 'Best' Method? Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 38, Issue 12, December 1999, pp. 1134-1140
  • Sciortino, J.A., Ravikumar, R.(1999): Fishery Harbour Manual on the Prevention of Pollution. Bay of Bengal Programme. BOBP/MAG/22. FAO/IMO.
  • Thiel, M., Hinojosa, I., Vasquez, N., Macaya, E. (2003): Floating marine debris in coastal waters of the SE-Pacific (Chile). Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 46, pp. 224-231
  • Thompson R.C., Olsen Y., Mitchell R.P., Davis A., Rowland, S.J., John A.W.G, McGonigle D., Russel, A.E.: Lost at Sea: Where Is All the Plastic. Science 7 May 2004. Vol. 304, p. 838.
  • Toping, P. (2000): Marine Debris: A Focus for Community Engagement. Paper presented by Environment Canada at the Coastal Zone Canada Conference, in September 2000.
  • US Environmental Protection Agency (2002): Assessing and Monitoring Floatable Debris. Report by the US EPA Oceans and coastal Protection Division, Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds, Office of Water.

Caribbean Region

  • Caribbean Regional Co-ordinating Unit (CAR/RCU): Marine issues in the Caribbean. Summary of the state of the environment in the Caribbean region.
  • Chiappone, M., White, A., Swanson, D.W., and Miller, S.L. (2002): Occurrence and biological impacts of fishing gear and other marine debris in the Florida Keys. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 44, pp. 597-604
  • Corbin, C.J. and Singh, J.G. (1993): Marine debris contamination of beaches in St. Lucia and Dominica. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 26, pp. 325-328.
  • Debrot, A.O., Tiel, A.B., and Bradshaw, J.E (1999):Beach Debris in Curaçao. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 38, pp. 795-801
  • Garrity. S.D. and Levings, S.C. (1993): Marine debris along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 26, pp. 317-324.
  • Lecke-Mitchell, K.M., Mullin, K. (1997): Floating Marine Debris in the US Gulf of Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 34, pp. 702-705
  • Nagelkerken, I., Wiltjer, G.A.M.T., Debrot, A.O., and Pors, L.P.J.J. (2001): Baseline Study of Submerged Marine Debris at Beaches in Curaçao, West Indies. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 42, pp. 786-789
  • UNEP/GPA: Assessment of Land-based Sources and Activities Affecting the Marine, Coastal and Associated Freshwater Environment in the Wider Caribbean Region.

Northwest Pacific

  • Chang-Gu Kang: Marine litter in the Republic of Korea. NOWPAP MER/RAC, 2003
  • Kusui, T., Noda, M. (2003): International survey on the distribution of stranded and buried litter on beaches along the Sea of Japan. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 47, pp. 175-179

Northeast Atlantic

  • Balas, C.E., Williams, A.T., Simmons, S.L. and Ergin, A (2001): A Statistical Riverine Litter Propagation Model. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 42, pp. 1169-1176
  • Barreiros, J.P., and Barcelos, J. (2001): Plastic Ingestion by a Leatherback Turtle Dermochelys coriacea from the Azores (NE Atlantic). Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 42, pp. 1196-1197
  • Cadee, G.C (2002): Seabirds and floating plastic debris. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 44, pp. 1294-1295
  • Dixon, T.R. and Dixon, T.J. (1983): Marine litter distribution and composition in the North Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 14, pp. 145-148.
  • Forum Skagerrak: The Skagerrak - social and economic activities and regulative framework. Report including a comprehesive review of the litter problems in the Skagerrak region (sea area shared by Denmark, Norway and Sweden). Forum Skagerrak, 2001.
  • Galgani, F., Burgeot, T., Bocquene, G., Vincent, F., Leaute, J.P., Labastie, J., Forest, A., and Guichet, R. (1995): Distribution and Abundance of Debris on the Continental Shelf of the Bay of Biscay and in Seine Bay. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 30, pp. 58-62
  • Hall, Karen (2000): Impacts of Marine Debris and Oil – Economic and Social Costs to Coastal Communities. Report published by Kommunenes Internatsjonala Miljøorganisation, (KIMO; Local Authorities International Environmental Organisation.
  • Marine Conservation Society: Beachwatch 2002. Annual UK Beach Litter Survey Report.
  • Marine Conservation Society: Beachwatch 2003. Annual UK Beach Litter Survey Report.
  • Maritime and Coastguard Agency (2002): Pilot Project to Establish Methodologies and Guidelines to Identify Marine Litter from Shipping. MCA Research Project 470.
  • Minchin, D. (1996): Tar Pellets and Plastics as Attachment Surfaces for Lepadid Cirripedes in the North Atlantic Ocean. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 32, pp. 855-859
  • OSPAR Commission (2000): Quality Status Report 2000. OSPAR Commission for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, 2000.
  • Velander, K.A., and Mocogni, M. (1998): Maritime Litter and Sewage Contamination at Cramond Beach Edinburgh -- a Comparative Study. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 36, pp. 385-389
  • Williams, A.T., and Tudor, D.T. (2001): Litter Burial and Exhumation: Spatial and Temporal Distribution on a Cobble Pocket Beach. Marine Pollution Bulletin, Volume 42, pp. 1031-1039.

Mediterranean

  • Aliani, S., A. Griffa and A. Molcard, 2003: Floating Debris in the Ligurian Sea, north-western Mediterranean, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 46, pp. 1142-1149.
  • Bingel, F., D. Avsar and M. Unsal, 1987: A note on plastic materials in trawl catches in the north-eastern Mediterranean. Meeresforschung (Reports on Marine Science), 31, pp. 227-233.
  • CMC, 2001: International Cleanup 1996-2000 Data, 4p.
  • CMC, 2001a: International Cleanup 1996-2000 Data, Greece Report, 4p.
  • CMC, 2002: International Cleanup 2001, Greece Summary Report, HELMEPA, 11p.
  • CMC, 2003: International Cleanup 2002, Greece Summary Report, HELMEPA, 10p.
  • Dixon, T., 1989: Garbage Statistics: Data on Sources, Amounts, Types and Distribution of marine litter in the Mediterranean Sea, pp. 23-33. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Elimination of Garbage from the Mediterranean and its Adoption as an Effective Special Area to Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, Athens, 29-30 June 1989.
  • Fawzi, M.A., 1989: National Arrangements for Protection of Marine Environment against Discharge of Shipboard Generated Garbage, pp. 90-96. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Elimination of Garbage from the Mediterranean and its Adoption as an Effective Special Area to Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, Athens, 29-30 June 1989.
  • Gabrielides, G.P., A. Golik, L. Loizides, M.G. Marino, F. Bingel and M.V. Torregrossa, 1991: Man-made garbage pollution on the Mediterranean coastline, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 23, pp. 437-441.
  • Galgani, F., S. Jaunet, A. Campillo, X. Guenegen and E. His, 1995: Distribution and Abundance of Debris on the Continental Shelf of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 30, No. 11, pp. 713-717.
  • Galgani, F., J.P. Leaute, P. Moguedet, A. Souplet, Y. Verin, A. Carpentier, H. Goraguer, D. Latrouite, B. Andral, Y. Cadiou, J.C. Mahe, J.C. Poulard and P. Nerisson, 2000: Litter on the Sea Floor Along European Coasts, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 40, No. 6, pp. 516-527.
  • Galil, B.S., A. Golik, and M. Turkay, 1995: Litter at the Bottom of the Sea: A Sea Bed Survey in the Eastern Mediterranean, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 22-24.
  • Gil, Y., 1989: Possible Initiatives of Industry to Limit Garbage Pollution, pp. 125-132. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Elimination of Garbage from the Mediterranean and its Adoption as an Effective Special Area to Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, Athens, 29-30 June 1989.
  • Golik, A. and Y. Gertner, 1989: Solid waste on the Israeli coast: composition, sources, and management. In: Proceedings of the second international conference on marine debris. Honolulu, Hawaii, 1989. NOAA, pp.369-378.
  • Golik, A. and Y. Gertner, 1992: Litter on the Israeli coastline. Marine Environmental Research 33, pp. 1-15.
  • Gramentz, D., 1988: Involvement of loggerhead turtle with the plastic, metal, and hydrocarbon pollution in the central Mediterranean, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 11-13.
  • HELMEPA, 1989: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Elimination of Garbage from the Mediterranean and its Adoption as an Effective Special Area to Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, Athens, 29-30 June 1989, 235p.
  • HELMEPA, 1990: Final Report “Public Awareness Campaign to Limit Garbage Pollution of the Greek Seas and Beaches”, “Mediterranean Strategy and Action Plan” for the Protection of the Environment (MEDSPA), 40p.
  • HELMEPA, 1997: Final Report “Integrated Demonstration Scheme for Solid Waste Management/Recycling and Investigation for Waste on Unspoiled, Non-Developed Beaches”, 20p.
  • HELMEPA, 2002: Paradise in the Depth of the Saronikos Bay, Video Tape (in Greek).
  • HELMEPA, 2003: Press Kit “To Save the Seas”
  • HELMEPA-LIFE, 1997: Integrated demonstration scheme for solid waste management / recycling and investigation for waste on unspoiled, non-developed beaches. Final Report, Athens.
  • HELMEPA-MEDSPA, 1991: Public Awareness Campaign for the Abatement of Pollution by Litter of the Greek coasts and Seas. Final Report. Athens.
  • HELMEPA-MEDSPA, 1994: Uniform Environmental Initiative / Action Programme in the Mediterranean. Final Report. Athens.
  • Horrocks, C., 1989: Shipping Efforts and Needs to Limit Ship Generated Pollution. Emphasis on Garbage, pp. 114-123. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Elimination of Garbage from the Mediterranean and its Adoption as an Effective Special Area to Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, Athens, 29-30 June 1989.
  • IOC, 1986: Report of the Sixth Session of the Committee for the Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment Programme, Paris, 25 September – 1 October 1986, UNESCO, Paris.
  • IOC, 1991: Report of the Seventh Session of the Committee for the Global Investigation of Pollution in the Marine Environment Programme, Paris, 12 – 18 January 1991, UNESCO, Paris.
  • IOC/FAO/UNEP, 1989: Report of the IOC/FAO/UNEP review meeting on the persistent synthetic materials pilot survey, Haifa, Israel, 1989.
  • IOC/UNESCO, 2000: Review of Activities by Regional and International Organizations Relating to the Assessment of Marine and coastal Litter in the Mediterranean Sea, Athens, 33p.
  • MAP, 1988: Report of the IOC/FAO/UNEP Ad Hoc Meeting on Persistent Synthetic Materials, Athens, 14-16 Oct. 1987 (document UNEP(OCA) MED WG.1/Inf.6), 14p.
  • MAP, 1999: Summary Background Paper by the Secretariat, Consultation Meeting on Marine and Coastal Wastes in the Mediterranean, Athens, 20-21 Dec. 1999 (document UNEP(OCA)MED WG. 164/2), 3p.
  • MAP, 2000: Report of the Consultation Meeting on Marine and Coastal Wastes in the Mediterranean, Athens, 20-21 Dec. 1999 (document UNEP(OCA)/MED WG. 164/3), 7p.
  • MAP, 2000a: General Questionnaire about Litter Management in Coastal Zones, 7p.
  • MAP, 2001: Litter Management in Coastal Zones of the Mediterranean Basin. Analysis of the Questionnaire and Proposals for Guidelines (document UNEP(DEC)/MED WG. 183/Inf. 4), 27p.
  • MAP, 2003: Strategic Action Programme: Guidelines for Management of Coastal Litter for the Mediterranean Region (document UNEP(DEC)/MED WG 231/7), 17p.
  • McCoy, F.W., 1988: Floating megalitter in the eastern Mediterranean, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 25-28.
  • Mitsasos, D., 1989: Initiatives for Public Awareness – Educational Campaign, pp. 159-170. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Elimination of Garbage from the Mediterranean and its Adoption as an Effective Special Area to Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, Athens, 29-30 June 1989.
  • Moris, R.J., 1980: Floating plastic debris in the Mediterranean, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 11, No.5, p. 125.
  • Pinon, H., 1989: International Regulations Affecting the Mediterranean, pp. 82-88. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Elimination of Garbage from the Mediterranean and its Adoption as an Effective Special Area to Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, Athens, 29-30 June 1989.
  • Role, A. and A.E. Chircop, 1989: Institutional, Law and Policy Responses in the Management of Garbage Pollution at the National Level, pp. 143-152. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Elimination of Garbage from the Mediterranean and its Adoption as an Effective Special Area to Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, Athens, 29-30 June 1989.
  • Rudischhauser, K. 1989: EC Policy to Limit Garbage Pollution in the Mediterranean, pp. 172- 177. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Elimination of Garbage from the Mediterranean and its Adoption as an Effective Special Area to Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, Athens, 29-30 June 1989.
  • Saydam, C., I. Salihoglu, M. Sakarya and A. Yilmaz, 1984: Dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons, suspended sediment, plastic, pelagic tar and other litter in the northeastern Mediterranean. In: CIESM/UNEP/IOC: Workshop on Pollution of the Mediterranean. Lucerne, CIESM, pp. 509-517.
  • Shiber, J.G., 1979: Plastic pellets on the coast of the Lebanon, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 28-30, 1979.
  • Shiber, J.G., 1982: Plastic pellets on Spain's "Costa del Sol" beaches, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 13, No. 12, pp. 409-412.
  • Shiber, J.G., 1987: Plastic pellets and tar on Spain's Mediterranean beaches, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 84-86.
  • Simoncic, V., 1989: The Elimination of Garbage in Yugoslav – Adriatic – Common Practice and Perspectives, pp. 35-43. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Elimination of Garbage from the Mediterranean and its Adoption as an Effective Special Area to Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, Athens, 29-30 June 1989.
  • Skordilis, S., 1989: Possible Initiatives of Municipalities to Limit Garbage Pollution, pp. 134- 141. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Elimination of Garbage from the Mediterranean and its Adoption as an Effective Special Area to Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, Athens, 29-30 June 1989.
  • Stefatos, A., M. Charalampakis, G. Papatheodorou and G. Ferentinos, 1999: Marine Debris on the Seafloor of the Mediterranean Sea: Examples from Two Enclosed Gulfs in Western Greece, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 36, o. 5, pp. 389-393.
  • Tangi, M. and A. Taleb, 1989: Economic and Social Aspects of Pollution of the Mediterranean by Domestic Waste, pp. 45-56. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Elimination of Garbage from the Mediterranean and its Adoption as an Effective Special Area to Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, Athens, 29-30 June 1989.
  • Tomas, J., R. Guitart, R. Mateo, and J.A. Raga, 2002: Marine debris ingestion in loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from the Western Mediterranean, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 44, pp. 211-216.
  • UNEP, 1991: Bibliography on Marine Litter. MAP Technical Reports Series No. 50. UNEP, Athens, 62 p.
  • UNEP/IOC/FAO, 1991: Assessment of the state of pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by persistent synthetic materials, which can float, sink or remain in suspension. MAP Technical Reports Series No. 56. UNEP, Athens, 113 p.
  • Wonham, J., 1989: International Shipping Regulations Affecting the Mediterranean, pp. 74-80. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Elimination of Garbage from the Mediterranean and its Adoption as an Effective Special Area to Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, Athens, 29-30 June 1989.