Marine mammals are species that spend the majority of their lives in or near the sea and include whales, dolphins, manatees and dugongs, sea otters, seals and even polar bears. Culling, direct and accidental catch, coastal development, habitat alteration and degradation, pollution and ocean noise constitute their main threats.
They are subject to the provisions of Articles 65 (which sets out the rights and duties of States in the exclusive economic zones (EEZ) and 120 (which sets out the rights and duties of States in the high seas) of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Marine mammal conservation is a cross-cutting issue relevant to several Multilateral Environmental Agreements.
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