Relationship with relevant Global Conventions
The global conventions listed below are those for which UNEP serves as Secretariat and their provisions are of direct relevance to the goals of the MMAP and vice-versa. Co-operation with those Convention Secretariats and other relevant global instruments such as the Convention on the Regulations of Whaling (under the International Whaling Commission) has been extremely beneficial and in some cases instrumental to the development of programmes and policies on key marine mammal issues at the international level. Such co-operation should be encouraged to continue and be strengthened.
Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)
CMS has closely co-operated and supported the MMAP, as the Convention has provided a forum for the development of legally binding regional agreements on marine mammals: (a) Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic and North Seas (ASCOBANS), (b) Agreement on the Conservation of the Mediterranean and Black Seas (ASCCOBAMS) and (c) Agreement on Wadden Sea Seals.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
Under the CITES Convention, all species of marine mammals are listed under Appendix I, which includes all species threatened with extinction which are or may be affected by trade, and Appendix II which includes all species which although not necessarily currently threatened with extinction may become so unless trade is subject to strict regulations and other species which must be subject to regulation.
The work of the Scientific Committee of CITES has included evaluation of the status of marine mammal species, such as the Narwhal, and CITES has participated as partner in the work of the MMAP.
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
While not specifically referring to marine mammals as such, the Jakarta Mandate on Coastal and Marine Biodiversity adopted under the work programme of the Convention on Biological Diversity, identifies the sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources as one of its five thematic areas for action. It is clear that every effort made by Governments and the international community in support of sound marine mammal conservation and management will directly contribute to the maintenance of biological diversity and the implementation of the Convention.
The World Conservation Union (IUCN)
World Worldlife Fund (WWF)