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The Methyl Bromide Phase-out Schedule

At the Ninth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol in Montreal in September 1997, the Parties agreed to a global phase out schedule for methyl bromide as follows:

Under the Montreal Protocol, developed countries are scheduled to reduce methyl bromide consumption (Production + Imports – Exports) from a 1991 baseline by

  1. 25 percent in 1999
  2. 50 percent in 2001
  3. 70 percent in 2003
  4. 100 percent in 200

Developing Countries that have signed the Protocol are scheduled to freeze consumption in 2002 at the 1995-98 average level and reduce consumption from that baseline by 20 percent in 2005 and 100 percent in 2015.

Summary of the Phase-out schedule agreed at the 9th meeting of the Parties in 1997


Non-Article 5 (1)
(Developed countries)

Article 5 (1)
(Developing countries)


Consumption baseline





1995-98 average


Consumption baseline


25% reduction



50% reduction






70% reduction

Review of reductions



20% reduction




Quarantine and Preshipment Exemption. Quarantine and preshipment applications of methyl bromide are exempt from the phase-out. Quarantine applications are performed or authorized by a national plant, animal, environmental, or health authority to prevent the introduction, spread, or establishment of quarantine pests.

Preshipment Treatments are performed 21 or fewer days before export to another country to meet official requirements, including non-quarantine standards such as food sanitation, of the importing country or exporting country. However, preventive treatments of stored commodities or facilities not related to quarantine or preshipment requirements are not exempt.

Critical Use Exemptions. Critical uses can be exempted on a yearly basis in developed countries after 2005 by the determination that a technically and economically feasible alternative with acceptable health and environmental effects is not available and that a significant market disruption would occur without methyl bromide. The country must take technically and economically feasible steps to minimize methyl bromide use and emissions and conduct research to develop and deploy alternatives.

Emergency Use. After the phase-out, a country can use up to 20 metric tons per year for emergency use and apply for approval after the event. 

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