Environmental degradation, inequitable access to natural resources and the transboundary movement of hazardous materials can lead to conflict and pose a risk to national security and human health.
Transboundary pollution, for instance, can disrupt relations between neighbouring states, which share a common resource base. Health risks and involuntary migration due to water scarcity, inequitable access to land resources, uncontrolled stocks of obsolete pesticides or other forms of hazardous waste have also been identified as threats to stability and peace.
However, common problems linked to the use of natural resources can also bring people to work together towards a common goal; thus, environmental co-operation can act as a powerful tool for preventing conflicts and promoting peace between communities and societies.
The Environment and Security Initiative (ENVSEC) - an inter-agency initiative consisting of UNDP, UNEP, NATO, OSCE, UNECE and REC, was created to encourage key public decision-makers in South Eastern and Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Caucasus to act to advance and protect peace and the environment at the same time.
ENVSEC implements regional programmes in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan), Eastern Europe (Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine), South Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro and Kosovo (territory under UN administration), and Southern Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia)