Part 2: Issues in Sustainable Development



Transportation is a necessity of economic life. The lack of transportation infrastructure is a major problem throughout Africa. In cities, poorly planned urban transport systems are congested and highly polluting.

Main Idea

Balancing economic benefits and environmental costs

Key Concepts

      • Importance of transportation infrastructure for economic growth
      • Environmental and health problems from urban air pollution


Knowledge of

      • transportation mode needs
      • environmentally-friendly transportation approaches

Understanding of

      • the threat to economic development due to regional transportation problems
      • transportation’s health and environmental costs

Ability to

      • describe the benefits of a non-fuel transport alternative
      • describe the advantages of using locally grown bio-fuels

Core Readings

  1. The Way Forward, pages 1-5
    Statistics on transportation and communications infrastructure in Africa; includes water, air, and ground transportation (5 pages)
  2. Building an Efficient Road Network
    Shortfalls in African regional transport (3 pages)
  3. Leaded Gasoline Phase-Out
    Graphics showing history of leaded gasoline phase-out in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2001-2006 (2 pages)
  4. Global Emissions Overview
    Transportation as major source of air pollutants, including surface ozone, which are threats to human and environmental health (1 page)

Sustainability Strategies

  1. Environmentally Sustainable Transport and Climate Change
  2. Re-A-Shoma Road Maintenance Commercialization
    An approach to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of service
    (1 page)
  3. Park Central Taxi Rank
    Formalizing a taxi rank to relieve traffic congestion, improve sanitation, and reduce crime (1 page)

Supplemental Readings

  1. Urban Roads
    Need for efficient management and maintenance of urban roads (3 pages)
  2. Urban Outdoor Air Pollution
    Statistics on urban outdoor air pollution worldwide and policies that help
    (3 pages)
  3. Dealing with Air Pollution
    Global information about emissions, fuels, and energy production sources including the transportation sector (8 pages)
  4. Air Pollution from Ground Transportation Excerpts
    Summary of dangers associated with vehicle emissions: particulate pollution, lead, volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxides of sulfur; their impact on environmental degradation: eutrophication, acid rain, surface ozone (5 pages)
  5. Urban Air Quality, pages 8-49
    Detailed comparison of strategies for reducing urban air pollution, with examples from World Bank projects (42 pages)

Assignment Questions

  1. Transportation: Why is improving transportation important for regional development in Africa?
  2. Interconnections: Transportation & Health: What role does transport play in urban air pollution? In African cities, in particular?