Turkey relies heavily on oil imports, covering nearly 90% of domestic demand. Although Turkey does not yet have auto fuel economy standards in place, the national energy efficiency agenda gained a major boost with the 2007 Energy Efficiency Law, followed by regulation on increasing energy efficiency in transportation in 2008. As a candidate country to the EU, Turkey will be responsible for the eventual adoption of EC regulation 443/2009, and industry groups have already initiated discussions in this area. However, this may also mean that Turkey will have to remove restrictions on the importation of used vehicles under an existing bilateral free trade agreement.
Turkey is a vehicle production powerhouse – among the top 20 in the world by units produced – and is an export hub for major brands, mainly to European markets. Vehicles have been Turkey’s major export since 2006, reaching 180 countries.
Domestically, relatively low car density combined with strong population growth could result in a swift rise in ownership and, without CO2 emissions standards, a concurrent rise in emissions and energy demand. High energy prices and taxes may curb this somewhat, but after Russia. Turkey has the biggest growth potential in terms of vehicle ownership. This stems from a population of over 76 million, the lowest car density in Europe, and an average vehicle age of 12 years. For example, vehicle growth in Istanbul from 2006 projected forward to 2020 is close to 100% (see figure below). In early 2011 Turkey adopted European fuel quality standards (going to 10 parts per million sulphur in diesel and petrol), and Euro IV standards for vehicle emissions have been in place since 2007. As of 2000, all imported and domestically produced cars are equipped with catalytic converters to reduce conventional pollutants.
The number of passenger cars, including diesel vehicles, in Turkey was projected to reach 5,700,000 in 2010, an increase of 17% over 2004. Natural gas (LPG) is an emerging fuel preference for passenger cars due to rising petrol/diesel costs and improved fuel economy; in 2010 approximately 400,000 cars converted to LPG. Dieselization is also a growing trend in Turkey. Total C02 (excluding land us change and forestry) emissions from the transport sector went from 26 megatonnes to 40.5 megatonnes from 1990-2004, an increase of 55.8%. In 2004, the share of CO2 emissions from road transport as part of total CO2 emissions in the transport sector was 84%.
According to International Energy Agency estimates, the national fuel economy average for Turkey was 7.24 L/100km in 2005 and 6.67 L/100 km in 2008 with a reduction of 2.7%. The Global Fuel Economy Initiative estimates the 2005 global average at 8.04 L/100km, with the goal of reducing the average to 4.02 L/100 km by 2050.
The number of passenger cars, including diesel vehicles, in Turkey was projected to reach 5,700,000 in 2010, an increase of 17% over 2004. Natural gas (LPG) is an emerging fuel preference for passenger cars due to rising petrol/diesel costs and improved fuel economy; in 2010 approximately 400,000 cars converted to LPG. Dieselisation is also a growing trend in Turkey.
Total C02 (excluding land us change and forestry) emissions from the transport sector went from 26 megatonnes to 40.5 megatonnes from 1990-2004, an increase of 55.8%. In 2004, the share of CO2 emissions from road transport as part of total CO2 emissions in the transport sector was 84%.
Turkey does not have an auto fuel economy standard, but is likely to eventually follow European standards.
New Vehicles Vehicles must meet Euro IV emission standards; no efficiency standards are in place for imports.
The importation of used vehicles is banned in Turkey.
The total tax burden on the pre-tax value of fuel is 195% for petrol and 134 % for diesel (in 2009).
Turkey ran a vehicle buy-back/scrappage programme in 2003-2004 resulting in a reduction of 4.9% in CO2 emissions from the vehicle sector for those two years.
Vehicle taxation is proportional to engine size, with larger engines taxed more heavily. This affects the fleet composition, wherein smaller engine cars (under 1600 cc) make up about 60%.
The 2002 National Research and Technology Foresight Programme (Vision 2023 Programme) identified fuel cells for transport, stationary and portable applications as a research area. See http://www.tubitak.gov.tr/
The EC Vehicle Labeling Directive was transposed into national legislation in 2009 and emission information is publicly shared by the Ministry of Industry and Trade (MIT). MIT, in cooperation with the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, is responsible for vehicle efficiency and emission standards implementation and enforcement in the country. The Directive has been transposed into Turkish legislation by the by-law on Informing Consumers on Fuel Economy and CO2 Emissions of New Passenger Cars (Official Gazette: 28 December 2003 No. 25330) and entered into force on 1 January 2008. According to Article 10 of the by-law the Ministry of Industry and Trade is responsible for the distribution of information and a guide on fuel economy and CO2 emissions and will perform this task through its provincial directorates. Articles 6 and 7 of the by-law define the requirements for CO2 and fuel economy labels of passenger cars. In addition, according to these articles the manufacturers of the passenger cars are responsible for the preparation of this label. Moreover, the information required in the label is displayed in detail in the Annex I of the by-law.