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GEO Year Book 2004/5  
UNEP Website GEO Home Page
Theme: ATMOSPHERE

Issues: Climate change
Stratospheric ozone depletion

Indicators: Energy use per unit of GDP*
Renewable energy supply index
CO2 emissions, total
CO2 emissions, per capita**
Consumption of CFCs***, HCFCs and methyl bromide

* MDG indicator no. 27 under Target 9, Goal 7
** MDG indicator no. 28(a) under Target 9, Goal 7
*** MDG indicator no. 28(b) under Target 9, Goal 7

Energy use

Energy use per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is gradually decreasing, indicating that energy is being used more efficiently (Figure 1). There are not enough data to show the line for West Asia.

Figure 1: Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per US$1 000 Gross Domestic Product by region and global, 1990–2001

Original Source: data GEO from Data IEA Portal, and the compiled World from Bank United Nations Statistics Division.

The total renewable energy supply has risen considerably over the last decade, with the index up to 119 in 2002 compared to 1990 (100) (Figure 2). Wind and solar energy in particular have seen sharp increases in absolute terms. However, overall energy use has increased in parallel, so the overall share of renewable energy has remained stable since 1990 at about 13.5 per cent of total energy use.

Figure 2: Renewable energy supply index by sector and global total, 1990–2002 (1990=100)

Source: GEO Data Portal, compiled from International Energy Agency

Carbon dioxide emissions

The concentration of CO2 in the Earth's atmosphere has increased from about 280 ppm before the industrial age, and accelerated during recent years to an all time high of 379 ppm in 2004 (NOAA 2004).

Global anthropogenic emissions of CO2 were slightly higher in the latest reported year (2000) (Figure 3), while per capita figures seem to be levelling off (Figure 4). Figures for other greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) are not available yet for all major regions of the world. Total aggregated anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions decreased by about three per cent from 1990 to 2000 in countries which are Annex I Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Figure 3: Total carbon dioxide emissions(million tonnes of CO2) by region and global, 1989–2001

Source: GEO Data Portal, compiled from United Nations Statistics Division

 

Figure 4: Total carbon dioxide emissions (tonnes of CO2) per capita by region and global, 1989–2001

Source: GEO Data Portal, compiled from United Nations Statistics Division

Stratospheric ozone depletion

While the consumption of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has decreased steadily in most regions of the world (Figure 5), the use of substitutes belonging to the group of HCFCs rose until around 2000 (Figure 6). Although data are not complete, the years 2000-03 showed a noticeable decline due to reversing trends in Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean and North America. HCFCs are much less ozone depleting than CFCs, but do have a large global warming potential. The use of methyl bromide increased during the 1990s, but is now decreasing in all regions of the world, largely due to reductions in usage for soil fumigation (Figure 7) (UNEP 2004). There are not enough data to show the lines for West Asia.

Figure 5: Consumption of chlorofluorocarbons (tonnes of ozone depleting potential) by region and global, 1989–2003

Source: GEO Data Portal, compiled from UNEP 2004


Figure 6: Consumption of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (tonnes of ozone depleting potential) by region and global, 1989–2003

Source: GEO Data Portal, compiled from UNEP 2004


Figure 7: Consumption of methyl bromide (tonnes of ozone depleting potential) by region and global, 1995–2003

Source: GEO Data Portal, compiled from UNEP 2004


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