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GEO Year Book 2004/5  
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Indicator, unit of measurement and source(s) Notes

Energy use per unit of GDP

Unit of measurement: kilogram of oil equivalent per US$1 000 of GDP, converted from national currencies using purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factors for the year 1995.
Source: UN Statistics Division (UNSD), compiled from the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the World Bank.

Energy use is calculated by the IEA as production of fuels + inputs from other sources + imports – exports – international marine bunkers + stock changes. It includes coal, crude oil, natural gas liquids, refinery feedstocks, additives, petroleum products, gases, combustible renewables and waste, electricity and heat.
Real GDP comes from the national income accounts deflated by reference to PPP tables prepared by the International Comparisons Program.
Renewable energy supply index.
Unit of measurement: none (index).
Source: IEA
Renewable energy data refer to Total Primary Energy Supply, originally expressed in Mtoe, for all the countries of the world from 1990 to 2002. The included renewable energy categories are: hydro, geothermal, wind, solar, biomass (solid, liquid and gas) and tide/wave/ocean.
The data are based on submissions from national administrations to the IEA Secretariat. The database contains time series of annual renewables and wastes data for OECD countries from 1990 to 2002, together with estimates for 2003 that are the latest renewable energy data available at the moment.
Emission of CO2 is the total amount of CO2 emitted by a country as a consequenceof human production and consumption activities.
Emission of CO2 per capita is the above divided by the population of the country. Unit of measurement: tonne.
Source: UNSD, compiled from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).
In the CO2 emission estimates of the CDIAC, the calculated country emissions of CO2 include emissions from consumption of solid, liquid and gas fuels; cement production; andgas flaring. National reporting to UNFCCC that follows the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines is based on national emission inventories and covers all
sources of anthropogenic emissions as well as carbon sinks.
Consumption of CFCs, HCFCs and MeBr is defined as production plus imports minus exports of controlled substances, as reported to the Secretariat of the Montreal Protocol by parties.
Unit of measurement: tonne of ozone-depleting potential.
Source: UNEP (Ozone Secretariat).
Ozone-depleting potential (ODP) is the ratio of the impact on ozone of a chemical compared to the impact of a similar mass of CFC-11. Thus, the ODP of CFC-11 is defined as 1.0. The five CFCs compiled for MDG indicator no. 28 are CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114 and CFC-115.
Not all parties meet reporting deadlines in time. Illegal production and trade occur and are not covered by the reporting process.
The HCFCs to be phased out are HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-133a, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca and HCFC-225cb.
Methyl bromide, MeBr or CH3Br, is to be phased out by 2005 in developed countries and by 2015 in developing countries (except for critical use). In 2004, 11 developedcountries which faced a year-end deadline for phasing out methyl bromide were granted limited ‘critical use exemptions’.
Number of people killed by natural disasters is the number of persons confirmed A as dead and persons missing and presumed dead.
Unit of measurement: number.
A disaster is a situation or event, which overwhelms local capacity, necessitating a request to national or international level for external assistance; an unforeseen and often sudden event that causes great damage, destruction and human suffering.
The data were revised in 2004 by OFDA/CRED, resulting in changed figures for past years, including the casualties in Africa in 1984.
Number of threatened species.
Unit of measurement: number.
Source: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
The term ‘threatened species’ includes species listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable i. e. those facing an extremely high risk, very high risk or high risk of extinction in the wild, respectively, according to the relevant criteria for population size, range, and maturity as established under the IUCN Red List system.
Regional time-series data cannot be presented because reporting and definitions have changed over the years.
Only a small proportion of described species has been evaluated for threatened status. For animals, only birds and mammals are (almost) all evaluated (100 and 99 per cent respectively). Less than 0.1 per cent of insect species have been evaluated. For plants, gymnosperms (mainly the conifers and cycads) are the only major group to be almost completely evaluated (93 per cent). Due to changes in the classification system, the plant figures do not include some species from the 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. The data on species threatened in each group do not mean that the remainder are not threatened. A number of species are listed as Near Threatened or Data Deficient. Species assessed as ‘of Least Concern’ are often not reported, and are not included. The numbers evaluated as threatened are therefore probably an underestimate.
Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area.
Unit of measurement: per cent.
Source: UNEP-WCMC (World Database on Protected Areas).
Protected area is the area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means.
The six IUCN management categories provide an internationally agreed framework within which countries can structure their protected area systems. IUCN management categories are Strict Nature Reserve (Ia); Wilderness Area (Ib); National Park (II); Natural Monument (III); Habitat/Species Management Area (IV); Protected Landscape/Seascape (V); Managed Resource Protected Area (VI).
Marine capture is the nominal catch of fish, crustaceans and molluscs in marine areas.
Unit of measurement: tonne.
Source: FAO (FISHSTAT Plus).
Fish categories include demersal, pelagic and other marine fish and freshwater and diadromous fish caught in marine areas, as taken for commercial, industrial, recreational and subsistence purposes. The harvest from mariculture, aquaculture and other kinds of fish farming is excluded. Catches are expressed in live weight – the weight of the organisms at the time of capture.
Data include all quantities caught and landed for food and feed purposes but exclude discards. Data on illegal fish catch are not available.
The general availability of fisheries data has not improved significantly over the last two decades, and although the available statistics probably reflect general trends reliably, the annual figures and the assessments involve some uncertainty.
Protected areas in Large Marine Ecosystems gives the share of protected area in major marine ecosystems (LMEs).
Unit of measurement: per cent.
Source: UNEP-WCMC (World Database on Protected Areas).
In the World Database on Protected Areas, sites indicated as marine are currently undergoing verification. The site information supplied often has only the ‘total protected area’ without a breakdown between marine and terrestrial components. Difficulty arises when trying to account for the marine proportion of a site especially where no polygon information is held. Efforts have been made to mitigate this problem in the data presented here.
Data and calculations as of November 2004.
Dissolved nitrogen and BOD in surface waters.
Units of measurement: mg/l.
Source: UNEP GEMS/Water Programme.
Surface waters include rivers and lakes.
Nitrate is the principal form of combined nitrogen found in natural waters. Total nitrogen is usually calculated as the sum of particulate nitrogen (i. e. does not pass a 0.45 µm
filter) and the resultant dissolved nitrate. Nitrogen (N) is measured in a number of forms in water samples; specifically as ammonium ions (NH4), ammonia gas (NH3), nitrate ions (NO3-) and Nitrite ions (NO2-).
Biological oxygen demand (BOD) measures the level of organic material in a water body, based on the fact that microorganisms use the oxygen dissolved in water to decompose organic matter in polluted water through a biochemical process which produces the carbon they need to survive.
The data are derived from the GEMS/Water Programme database. The figures should be used with caution since the existing database is fairly sparse in regions such as Africa and parts of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Proportion of population with access to improved water supply.
Unit of measurement: per cent.
Source: WHO/UNICEF (Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation).
‘Improved’ water supply technologies are: household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected dug well, protected spring, rainwater collection.
‘Not improved’ are: unprotected well, unprotected spring, vendor-provided water, bottled water (based on concerns about the quantity of supplied water, not concerns over the water quality), tanker truck-provided water. It is assumed that if the user has access to an ‘improved source’ then such source would be likely to provide 20 litres per capita per day at a distance no further than 1 km.
In 1990, data for 89 per cent of world population were available. In 2002, data for 94 per cent of world population were available. Time series cannot be shown due to lack of data.
Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation.
Unit of measurement: per cent.
Source: WHO/UNICEF (Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation).
‘Improved’ sanitation technologies are: connection to a public sewer; connection to septic system; pour-flush latrine; simple pit latrine; ventilated improved pit latrine. The excreta disposal system is considered adequate if it is private or shared (but not public) and if it hygienically separates human excreta from human contact.
In 1990, data for 87 per cent of regional population were available. In 2002, data for 91 per cent of regional population were available.
Time series cannot be shown due to lack of data. In 2004, revisions to earlier reported data were made based on additional information, more detailed definitions of sanitation facilities and a more stringent method used to estimate coverage. Data for the year 1990 were adjusted accordingly.
Concentrations of lead, PM, SO2, NO2 in air.
Unit of measurement: µg/m3.
Source: OECD Environmental Data Compendium 2002.
The data provide an indication of trends in ambient air quality in cities. The use of the data is limited because often only one measurement site is available for trend purposes, and in some cities the number of trend sites will change significantly from one year to the next.
One measurement site is not sufficient when trying to assess citywide trends. While no firm rule exists, five or more sites are recommended as a minimum number from which to derive such trend information, assuming a distribution of sites that represents multiple areas of a city.
Caution is needed when interpreting these data, especially because of the large differences in the number of monitoring sites used in the calculation of citywide averages. The variation in the number of sites may sometimes introduce a bias to the trend within an individual city. Sometimes monitoring is carried out only at sites where there is a severe problem, leading to a bias towards higher concentrations.
Because of different PM measurement techniques applied in different cities extreme caution is needed in comparing the figures. (Mexico City: data refer to the Metropolitan area. New York: particulates smaller than 10 µm. Seoul: data refer to total suspended particulate. Christchurch: particulates smaller than 50 µm. Berlin: particulates smaller than 15 µm. Oslo: particulates smaller than 10 µm. London: data refer to black smoke.)
Number of parties to multilateral environmental agreements is the number of countries and political and/or economic integration organizations, which have deposited their instrument of ratification, accession, acceptance or approval of each of the 13 multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) listed on the right. The list also includes secretariats’ Web pages showing status of ratification.
Unit of measurement: number.
Source: MEA Secretariats.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD):
Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS):
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES):
http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/parties/index. shtml
Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (World Heritage):
Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (Kyoto):
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and its Montreal Protocol on
Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Vienna/Montreal):
http://www.unep.ch/ozone/ratif. shtml
Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar):
http://www.ramsar. org/key_cp_e.htm
Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (PIC):
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs):
UN Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious
Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa (UNCCD):
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS):
http://www.un.org/Depts/los/reference_files/chronological_lists_of_ratifications.htm#The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC):
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal (Basel):

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