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Atmosphere

Theme: ATMOSPHERE Issues: Climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion

Indicator: Energy use per unit of GDP

MDG indicator no. 27 under Target 9, Goal 7

Energy intensity – the amount of energy used per unit of GDP indicates progress in the efficiency of energy use in producing economic output. Changes in the ratio over time also reflect changes in the structure of the economy (for example shifts between agriculture, industry and services). On the whole, the ratio has been decreasing in most regions, indicating that the overall efficiency of energy use is improving.
Indicator: Renewable energy supply index

Among the renewables, only wind energy saw a small increase compared to previous years. During the 1990s, the share of renewable energy in total energy use increased very slowly, from 12.9 per cent to 13.5 per cent. Since then the share has decreased slightly, down to 13.2 per cent in 2003, due to the continued strong increase in overall energy use.

Theme: ATMOSPHERE Issues: Climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion

Indicator: Carbon dioxide emissions, total and per capita MDG indicator no.

28a under Target 9, Goal 7

Carbon dioxide emissions continue to rise as world consumption of fossil fuels increases. For 2002, the latest year for which
comprehensive data are available, global carbon dioxide emissions were estimated to have reached almost 25 billion tonnes,
3.6 per cent more than the year before. Only the Latin America and the Caribbean region showed a decrease during 2002, of 2.4 per cent. Large increases were noted for the Asia and the Pacific and West Asia regions, 8.8 and 8.9 per cent respectively.
Globally, annual average emissions per capita have been fairly stable since 1990. For 2002, this figure was up to 3.93 tonnes from 3.85 tonnes in 2001.

Indicator: Mountain glacier mass balance

The average ice thickness of mountain glaciers which are being monitored has been reducing by a few tens of centimetres per year since 1980. The total decrease during 1980–2004 was about nine metres. The global average decrease for 2003 has been estimated at 1.2 metres – the highest value recorded in recent decades. The decrease for 2004 has been estimated at 0.73 metre, which is the second highest record during that period (WGMS 2005a). The current trend is consistent with accelerated global warming. The acceleration in worldwide glacier disappearance has become more and more obvious during the past two decades (WGMS 2005b). The overall retreat of glaciers during the 20th century was in the order of several kilometres for larger glaciers, and hundreds of metres for smaller ones. On realistic projections of future warming, almost complete de-glaciation of many mountain ranges could occur within decades, leaving ice only on the highest peaks and in glaciers that are still thick (WGMS 2005c).

Theme: ATMOSPHERE Issues: Climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion

Indicator: Consumption of CFC*, HCFC and MeBr *MDG indicator no.

27b under Target 9, Goal 7


Stratospheric ozone depletion is caused primarily by increases in concentrations of reactive chlorine and bromine compounds, produced by degradation of anthropogenic ozone depleting substances (ODS). The international process that started in 1985 with the Vienna Convention ended production of most chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), but led to increased use of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and the production of a wide range of other chemicals (hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and others) (IPCC 2005). HCFCs are much less ozone depleting than CFCs, but they have a significant higher global warming potential.

The use of CFCs has been further decreasing in all regions, and for 2004 stands at 65 000 tonnes for the world, as expressed in Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP). The use of substitute compounds within the group of HCFCs has also been decreasing since the year 2000, and for 2004 was at the level of 29 000 ODP tonnes (UNEP 2005a). The use of methyl bromide has declined steadily since the mid-1990s. In 2004, it amounted to 15 000 ODP tonnes, with only the North America region showing an increase in that year. Under the Montreal Protocol, developed countries have agreed to a gradual phase-out of methyl bromide between 1999 and the end of 2004, and developing countries between 2002 and 2015. To allow for “critical use” mainly in the agricultural and food-processing sectors, several developed received exemptions to the phase- 853.8 metric tonnes in 2006 (UNEP 2005a). The ozone layer is expected to begin decades due to declining ODS concentrations, compliance with the Montreal Protocol the ozone hole over the Antarctic in size it was in 2000 and 2003, the two was the largest, as one would expect chlorine and bromine in the atmosphere.
in the stratosphere, related to higher greenhouse gases (GHGs), could delay of the ozone layer (WMO 2005).

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