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Global Environmental Governance

Theme: GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE

Indicator: Number of parties to multilateral environmental agreements

The continuing increase in the number of ratifications of major multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) shows the growing commitment of countries and regions to address global environmental issues. At the end of 2005, 78 per cent of the potential participants had become parties to 13 major MEAs when taken together (Table). In particular, there have been significant increases in the number of Parties to the relatively recent Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the two conventions related to chemicals – the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (PIC) and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). The Kyoto Protocol entered into force in February 2005. The PIC and POPs agreements entered into force in 2004. By now, a number of MEAs are approaching the maximum number of Parties, including the Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (“Ozone”), the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (“World Heritage”), and the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): http://www.biodiv.org/world/parties.asp

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS): http://www.cms.int/about/part_lst.htm

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/parties/index.shtml

Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (World Heritage): http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/

Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change(Kyoto):http://unfccc.int/essential_background/kyoto_protocol/status_of_ratification/items/2613.php
Vienna

Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and its Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Ozone): http://www.unep.ch/ozone/ratif.Shtml

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar): http://www.ramsar.org/key_cp_e.htm Rotterdam

Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (PIC): http://www.pic.int/en/ViewPage.asp?id=265

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs): http://www.pops.int/documents/signature/signstatus.htm

UN Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa (UNCCD): http://www.unccd.int/convention/ratif/doeif.php

UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS):
http://www.un.org/Depts/los/reference_files/chronological_lists_of_ratifications.htm#

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): http://unfccc.int/essential_background/convention/status_of_ratification/items/2631.php

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their
Disposal (Basel): http://www.basel.int/ratif/frsetmain.php

Issue: International environmental initiatives


Theme: GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Issues: International environmental initiatives

Indicator: Number of certifications of the ISO 14001 standard

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 standard, first published in 1996, specifies the actual requirements for an environmental management system in organizations (companies and institutions), with the goal of minimizing harmful effects on the environment and achieving continual improvement of its environmental performance.
ISO 14001 is the only environmental management standard that can currently be certified by an external certification authority. However, it does not itself state specific environmental performance criteria: certifications only give an indication of the extent to which an organization conforms to its own stated environmental policy (ISO 2005a). For 2004, the total number of organizations with the ISO 14001 certification stood at 90 569 (in 127 countries), up from 66 070 (in 113 countries) in 2003, a 37 per cent increase. The European and Asia and the Pacific regions account for 88 per cent of the world figure. All regions have shown significant increases since the start of the certification process, with average annual increases of around 50–70 per cent. The numbers in West Asia and Africa are still relatively low (230 and 818 certificates in 2004 respectively) (ISO 2005b).



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